Childhood diseases and their vaccinations

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Parents of any child in first year of life should take  their child  for vaccination  to  medical  health center and to reinforce effect of vaccines, after one years old re-references are required that these stages and type of vaccines  are shown in the following of material.

Suffering from some diseases in childhood period is very dangerous and can cause mortality and make disability in children.

The most important of these diseases that annually, loses life of a much number of children is tuberculosis, measles, whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B. All children should be vaccinated against these diseases.

Human body against these viruses and germs or poisons makes materials that are so – called antibody. Now if body contacts with real germ or virus of disease (like a vaccine), it can remove it and thereby, human is immunized against those diseases.

All medical health centers in our country are ready to run vaccination for all children and this work is done freely. At back of child’s growth card, a vaccination card has been taken to register his/her vaccines.

Schedule of children’s vaccination in quotation of website of Pasteur Institute of Iran is as follow:

-      at early of birth : BCG, drop of  polio, hepatitis B

-      2 month old: triple, drop of polio, hepatitis B

-      4 month old: triple, drop of polio

-      6 months old: triple, drop of polio, hepatitis B

-      one year old:  MMR (measles , mumps and  measles)

-      18 months old : triple, drop of polio, MMR

-      6 years old: triple , drop of  polio

Measles disease is severely contagious and all children who have not received vaccine, will suffer from it.

What are these vaccines?

BCG vaccine: this vaccine by using weakened tuberculosis bacteria, has been made against this diseases that is injected as subcutaneous in above baby’s arm at early of birth.

-      triple  vaccine (diphtheria , tetanus , and whooping cough): this vaccine  is made  by using  killed  bacteria of whooping cough and poisons of bacteria of  diphtheria and tetanus . Diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough are dangerous diseases that can cause death or severe consequences.

-  Edible drop of polio: polio is a severe viral disease that can lead to permanent   paralysis of a group of body muscles.

-      MMR (measles, rubella, and mumps) vaccine: this vaccine is provided from weakened virus of these diseases. Sign of measles disease includes high and multiple-days fever with nose epiphora, conjunctivitis and eruptions that appear after starting fever.

-      Hepatitis B vaccine: hepatitis B disease that is transferred (through blood or mother to embryo and sexual relation), is placed in vaccination program. From consequences of vaccine injection, ache, redness, headache and indolence can   be indicated.

To know diseases that against which, vaccination is done, a short explanation is provided in the following text.

Tetanus

There is tetanus germ in soil and in case that body wound is infected with soil, there is probability to make this disease.

Tetanus is a dangerous disease and suffering from it in any age is possible. Poison of germ of this disease has been known from the deadliest poisons.

In unhygienic accouchement, there is probability that baby suffers from tetanus. Tetanus of babies is a very dangerous disease, but by vaccination of mothers, this disease can be removed.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a contagious and chronic disease that annually, it afflicts millions people in the world. Tuberculosis germ enters respiratory ducts of healthy people through phlegm of afflicted person and air and afflicts them.

Recognition of tuberculosis  needs diagnostic appliances and its remedy is long term and problematic .In several past decades , tuberculosis disease   was seen  in developing countries, but today  by outbreak of  AIDS disease that reduces  people’s  immunity  against diseases, again  tuberculosis disease is observed  all over the world and causes mortality and  paralysis of  a much number .

Vaccine of tuberculosis disease is called BCG and should be injected in the first opportunity after birth to baby.

Measles

Measles disease is severely contagious and all children who have not received vaccination will suffer from it. Symptoms of this disease include skin rash, fever and whooping cough.

Measles has different consequences and the most important of them is pneumonia, blindness and deafness. Mortality rate due to this disease, especially in children who suffer from malnutrition, is very much.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a type of disease that involves liver of afflicted person and its symptoms are nausea, vomiting and severe in appetence.

This disease makes fault of liver and many problems for afflicted person and finally, it leads to his/her death.

Vaccination against this disease prevents to afflict it.

Polio

Polio disease annually causes to paralyze many children. Affliction of disease is done through mouth and by water, food and infected objects.

Start of disease is like cold that in following it, paralysis of limbs appears .In effect of vaccination against this disease and hygienic actions, this disease is eradicating in our country fortunately.

Diphtheria

Germ of diphtheria grows in patient’s throat and by making false membrane and local wastages in throat and secretion of poison that is released by blood in all body, causes poisoning and suffocation.

This disease in the past has had more commonness and fortunately, today its severity has been reduced. But due to its extraordinary deadliness, vaccination is done against it.

Whooping cough

Whooping cough that its factor is a type of bacteria, afflicts respiratory system and person suffers from special train coughs and he/she coughs so much that his/her face is blackened.

Deadliness rate of this disease is very high and in case person loses his/her life   , he suffers from nervous disabilities and consequences. This disease can easily afflict to other people. Vaccination against this disease can prevent many mortalities due to it.

Warnings

Vaccination effects well when it is done punctually and completely. Some of vaccines are effective when they are injected several times. So, vaccination table should be complied with completely. One of the most important reasons of not referring parents to vaccinate their children is that child has been suffered from fever, cough, cold or diarrhea in a day when it is turn of his/her vaccination.

In these weak diseases and also, in times of malnutrition, taking action to vaccinate has no danger and vaccine should be injected to child punctually.

Parents should know that some of vaccines have a short consequences, for example in place of injecting vaccine (BCG), a small wound is made and crusts. This wound should not be manipulated, since after a while, it is recovered automatically. After injecting triple vaccine, child finds a short fever, too and place of injection is inflated and aches. Child’ fever should be lowered by a drug that physician gives it and place of injection is compressed with warm towel.

One week after injecting measles vaccine, child suffers from a case like cold and it is possible, weak rashes appear on his/her skin.

Outbreak of any one of above cases shows natural reaction of body than vaccines and there is no room to be concerned, but in case that after injecting vaccine, severe fever, restlessness and or cases like convulsion are found in child (that of course, it occurs except in rare times) it should be referred to physician, quickly.

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