SHAFAQNA- Forty Traditions from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (A.S.)
1. However, the prohibited form of guardianship: So the ruler ship of the tyrant ruler and the ruler ship of his governors, their chief, the followers of the rulers, so besides them the sub rulers under the rule of the main ruler, right down to the smallest one, is a door out of the doors of ruler ship upon whom he is a ruler. And working for them and having business and trade relations with them (as an acceptance of their rule) is prohibited and unlawful Whosoever does it, whether more of it or less of it, will get tormented and chastised. Because all that done (as an assistance to them) is a big sin among the big sins.
And this is because during the ruler ship of the tyrant all the righteousness gets wiped off and all that is falsehood will be revived in the ruler ship of the oppressor and tyrant ruler. And the cruelty, brutality and corruption manifested and the heavenly books will get falsified and forfeited. And the Prophets and faithful’s will be killed. And the Masajid will get dislodged and dismantled. And the Sunnah, ordinances and religious laws of Allah be changed. This is the reason why co working with them, helping and assisting them except where there exists a necessity like eating (haram and prohibited) blood and corpse (deal body) for saving of life etc.) is prohibited. 1
2. Indeed the cognition and knowing of Allah provides comfort in all terrors and frights. And it is the companion in all solitudes and loneliness and the light in all darkness and energy in all weakness and feebleness and the cure of all diseases and ailments. 2
3. Umer bin Hazala says I enquired from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (A.S.) “Two men out of us have a dispute about a debt or a heritage and proceed toward the king and the judges of the age (appointed by the king) to get their affair settled. Is this act of theirs lawful?’
Imam Sadiq said, ‘Anyone who refers to them for Judgment of whether something right or false, so truly he has referred to Taghut (Satan, Devil). And what so ever judgment the (satanic institution,) executes for him (should that even be a right one) is getting (haram) prohibited wealth, because, he gets it upon the order of false deity, (Satan). Whereas, Allah has commanded in the Holy Quran to deny the Satan and devil. Allah said ‘they desire to undergo the rulership of Satan (Taghoot) and’ They have already been ordained to disbelieve it.’
I said ‘so how do they settle their dispute?’ He replied ‘,They should look for the one among you who narrates our hadith (traditions) and sees into (Probes) our licit (lawful) and our forbidden and knows our legal provisions and ordinances so they must get contented with his judgment (mediation). Truly, I have already made them the rulers over you. 3
4. The Judges are four (categories). Three of them are to enter the hell fire and a single one into the heaven. 1, the one who makes Judgment cruelly and by injustice and he is aware of it. 2. The one who makes judgments cruelly and tyrannically (unjustly) but unknowingly, he is in the fire of hell. .3. And a man who makes Judgment according to justice and rightly and he does not know it, so he is in the hell fire. 4. And a person who makes judgment rightly and justly and he knows it, so he will enter the paradise. 4
5. The person who sees his brother (religious) involved (in a problem) which is the cause of his trouble and dislike and he does not remove it from him although he can do that, has committed a dishonesty with him. 5
6. Nothing follows a person after his death except three virtues and qualities.
1. The alms and charity that he may have executed by the grace of Allah in his life and which continues on after his death. (i.e.) (Like schools, hospitals, social welfare institutions, books, wells, bridges, roads etc.) 2. And a decent and good tradition (left over by him) which is put into practice (after his death). 3. A pious son who prays for him. 6
7. Some of the rights of a Muslim upon his Muslim brother are that he salutes him when he meets him. And visits him when he becomes ill, and when he is absent he wishes him his benevolence and beneficence i.e., defends him in his absence). and prays for him when he seeks, (saying يرحمک الله (God take pity on you) and accepts his invitation when he invites him and escorts his funeral when he dies.’ 7 (Chapter: ‘Faithful’s rights upon his brother’)
8. Faithful is the brother of faithful just like one single body, (so that) if one part of it has a complaint the entire body feels and receives the pain and trouble. And their souls are from a single soul. And indeed the tie and connection of the faithful’s soul to the soul of Allah is more powerful and strengthen than the connection of the rays of sun with it. 8
9. The Muslims’ right upon (another) Muslim is that he must not be full and satiated and his brother remains hungry. And he must not get his thirst quenched and his brother remains thirsty. And he must not dress himself up when his brother is naked. So how great and exuberant is the right of a Muslim upon his Muslim brother. And he (A.S.) said do wish for your Muslim brother the same which you want for yourself. 9
10. Faithful is the brother of faithful, his eye and his guide. He does not commit any dishonesty and does not execute aggression upon him nor treachery and deception and when he commits and gives him a word, does not go back upon it. 10
11. The smallest thing which turns a man out of faith (renders him faithless) is that he keeps counting the faults, lapses missteps and faux of his brother in faith so that one day he may reprimand him. (By those weaknesses).
These are a glimpse of the rights of Muslim brethren which originate from the birth and continue on till his death. So Muslims must assess and evaluate their practices according to this standard. 11
12. The one who is pious in the world, Allah places wisdom in his heart and makes his tongue reproduce it (He utters the words of wisdom). And makes him aware and knowledgeable about the faults and short comings of the world and its diseases and ailments and their cures. And transfers him out of the world in a pure and perfect condition toward the house of peace (i.e. the next world).12
13. There would be many categories and classes of the people crossing over the path… And the path would be thinner than a hair and sharper than a sword. (According to Islamic belier a path (bridge) will be placed over the hell roars the people to cross to the paradise. Those pious would cross over to the heaven just as the lightening and the arrogant infidels, hypocrites, faithless, would stagger and stammer and rail down into the fire or hell).
Some people would cross over creeping upon their bellies and hands. 2. Some would cross over walking. 3. And some would cross it in hanging condition, so that, the hell fire would be burning some parts of their bodies and some parts will be left over (safe). 13
14. It is from the disposition and manners of the ignorant that he answers before listening, and quarrels before understanding and gives judgment upon what he is unaware of. 14
15. The person who acts and practices short of vision is similar to the traverser and traveler of a wrong avenue. So the speed of his journey would not but only increase his distance (from the destination). 15
16. The most beloved of the brothers to me is the one who presents and indicates to me my faults and short comings. 16
17. Be the inviters and callers of people towards beneficence without (using) your tongues, so that they may observe your endeavor and efforts, and truth and piety.17
18. The one who did not spend his earning upon himself certainly he collected it up for a person other than himself. And the one who followed and obeyed his passions and lust has obeyed his enemy. The person who depended upon Allah, Allah will adequate and fulfill the vital needs (affairs) of his world and here after, and secure him from the thing unseen by him. (Allah guards the pious ones against all sorts of calamities, down falls, pains, and discomforts and deviations of faith provided they depend upon Him.) And the one who does not observe patience over the calamities and mishaps and express thankfulness and gratitude for all the benevolences and beneficence’s and does not find and search a way out of all the difficulties is an unable, and confounded person. And make it a habit to be patient in wake of all kinds of calamities and afflictions should those be of children or wealth or one’s own self.
Since, Allah takes back his loan and takes back his endowments so as to test your patience and gratitude in those things. And have hope from Allah the kind of hope and aspiration which may not invoke and make you dauntless and brave in committing his sins and prohibited acts. And be afraid and fear Allah, a kind of fear that may not disappoint you from His mercy. And do neither get betrayed nor deceived by the word of ignorant and nor by his praise lest you should become proud and obstinate and refractory and give yourself airs and become proud about your practices and acts. Thus the best and superb of the practices is performing services and humility and humbleness. So do not squander and waste your wealth and rectify the wealth of other than you, for those you collect to leave back. And be contented with the (sustenance) Allah has provisioned and destined for you. And do not look towards the wealth except than that one you possess. And do not long and aspire for the thing which you cannot achieve. Because, the one who gets contented, gets full up and the one who does not get contented never satiates and saturates. And get your share from the hereafter.18
19. It is required for the faithful to have eight qualities in him.
1. being gracious during the hardship and calamities. 2. Being patient in wake of affliction. 3. being thankful at the time of comfort and abundance. 4. Being contented with sustenance granted by Allah. 5. Not committing excess and aggression upon enemies. 6. Not loading his own load (responsibilities) upon the shoulders of his friends. 7. His body remains troubled by him (due to services). 8. And the people remain comfortable and at ease from him. (He does not bother and trouble others). 19
20. Seventy sins of ignorant are forgiven before one sin of a scholar is forgiven. 20
Because the scholar by virtue of his knowledge knows all the pros and cons and consequences of committing a sin, whereas, an unaware and ignorant person does not know them. But this is not a justification for committing sin by those ignorant or that one should not become educated and learned in the field of religious ethics and Islamic code of conduct.)
21. And do not become arrogant and vain (ungrateful) when rich and wealthy, and do not grumble and complain in poverty. And do not become an ill-tempered and stone hearted one so that people might dislike your company and proximity. And do not become meek and feeble, so that anybody who knows you may insult and belittle you. And do not fight the one who is above (superior to) you. And do not mock anyone inferior to yourself. And do not have controversy and tussle against those suitable for the affairs. And do not obey the stupid and silly ones and do not accept the subordination of everybody (every other person) and do not depend upon the competence and thrift of anyone. And do stop and wait (contemplate) prior to setting your hand at an affair till such time you get to distinguish the entry way from the exit of it before you repent upon starting it. (Do know the way of exit from it. Should you decide to abandon that work?) And consider your heart (conscience) a close associate who is your partner.
And consider your practice a father whom you follow up. And regard your ego as your enemy with whom you combat (fight a holy war), and a thing lent to you which must be taken back. Thus you have been made to be a physician of your own self and you have been taught and made conversant to the signs of health, and the ailment (too) has been made exhibited and evident to you and you have been guided to the medicine. So (now) very cautiously guard and look after your soul. 21
22. Who so ever starts a morning in a condition that he is worried and apprehensive for something else than getting his neck free (from the Hell fire) so he has taken a great and magnanimous thing easy and light. And he has shown inclination and asked his Lord something insignificant and vile. (Worldly material) And the one who cheats and beguiles his brother and belittles him and has hostility towards him Allah will make the hell to be his abode. And the person who is jealous of a faithful, faith will dissolve and disappear from his heart just as salt dissolves into the water. 22
23. Do not give away alms when the people are witnessing and watching so that they may consider you a pious one so if you did that you have received your reward.
But if you gave it away (in a manner) that your left hand does not become aware of it when you give it by your right hand. So then the one (Allah) for whom you have given it away secretly, will give you it’s reward and remuneration in the presence of witnesses and evidences on the day when not being aware of the people about your almsgiving will not harm you. (Resurrection day). 23
24. Some of the admonitions of Luqman (A.S.) to his son say: ‘Oh son, always be sober and gracious. And observe serenity and grace in your life affairs. And be firm and stabilize yourself in the affairs of your brothers (helping and assisting them). So if you decide to achieve the honor and glory of the world then shorten your avarice and allurement from whatever is in the hands of the people, for, certainly the stations and posts which the prophets and the truthful came to achieve were on account of shortening and cutting off their avarice and temptations. 24
25. It is the obligatory right for all the Muslims who know us that each one of them presents his practices of the day and night to himself (gets it checked by himself) and becomes an accountant and checker for himself. So if he sees a good deed he must increase and boost it up and if he sees a sin he must repent upon it, and ask forgiveness from Allah, lest he should get disgraced and dishonored on the judgment day. 25
26. The one who deals with the people and does not commit excess upon them and talks to them and does not tell lie. And makes promise and does not break it, he is one of those whose slandering and back biting is prohibited and his forbearance and fortitude is completed and his justice and equity is exhibited and evident one and his brotherhood is obligatory and binding upon others. 26
27. Days are of three forms. There is a day which has passed on and will never again, be sorted out and found. And there is a day for the people which is required and appropriate to be valued and esteemed.
And tomorrow, about which certainly they have hope and aspiration. 27
28. ‘Oh son of Jundab! The one who depends and trusts upon his practice gets perished. And the one who dares to commit sins having surety and certainty about the commiseration and blessing of Allah does not get salvation. I said ‘then who gets salvation?’
He said’: The people who remain placed between hope and fear as if their hearts are in the claws of bird, with solicitude of reward and the fear of chastisement. 28
29. Goodness is just like its name (good, and excellent) and there is nothing superior and superb than the goodness except its reward and remuneration. And excellence and virtue is a gift from Allah to His servant. And it is not that who so ever loves to be fair and good to people does it (as well). And it does not happen that all those inclined and prone to it get the power and succeed in doing it. And it is not so that all those who have the power and limitation to practice and perform it get permitted and leave to perform it. So when Allah does a favor to a servant he gathers for him the inclination and tendency of doing good and the capacity and power and the permission. So then the prosperity and magnanimity gets completed for the goodness and its doer… 29
30. The person who moves to fulfill the need of his brother (in faith) is similar to the runner between SAFA and MARWA.(Running seven times between two Hill of Safwa and Marwa in Makkah is a part of Hajj and Umrah rituals this is also known as Sayee or the Effort). And the one who fulfills (materializes) his need is like the person who wallowed and rolled in to his (own) blood on the way and course of Allah, on the day of Badr and Uhud (battles). 30
31. Allah bestowed His boons and beneficence’s upon a nation as generosity and gifts. Then they did not thank him for those, so, those turned into curse and evil for them. And He involved and entangled (as a test) a nation into afflictions and calamities and they exercised patience so those (calamities) turned for them into beneficence. 31
32. Indeed when the sin is committed by a servant secretly, it does not harm but the one who commits it. Whereas, if it is committed openly and conspicuously and a restraints is not put upon it then it harms the general public. 32
33. A man does not become proud hearted and arrogant but for the self-abjection which he finds in his soul. 33
34. Be kind and affectionate to your fathers (ancestors) your sons will treat you kindly and nicely and exhibit (be) modest to the women of other (people) they will treat your woman with modesty and chastity. 34
35. Connect the blood kinship relations with the one who disconnect and cuts off ties with you. And do grant to the one who deprives you. And do well to the person who does treat you bad. And salute to the one who abuses you. And treat him with justice the one who is cruel and oppressive to you, just as you like to be forgiven. So keep the forgiveness and remission of Allah in view. Do you not see that his sun shines (equally) over the pious one and the transgressors, and that his rain showers and pours down upon the pious ones and the evil doers (equally)? 35
36. Beware of three (kinds of) people. The dishonest and the zaloom36 (the most oppressor, tyrant cruel) and telltale. Because the dishonest (who) is committing dishonesty to your benefit will (tomorrow) commit dishonesty with you and the one who is being cruel for your benefit will (tomorrow) commit excess and oppression against you and the person who culminates people, tells tales and back bites people before you, will (tomorrow) back bite you. 37
37. when the resurrection day will come Allah will resurrect a religious scholar and a worshipper (devotee, votary) so when they (both) will stand before Allah it would be said to the adorer to start off toward the paradise and to the scholar it would be said ‘, stop! Intercessor and mediate for the people for the best training which you imparted upon them. ’38
38. Two units of service offered by a married person is superior to seventy cycles of service offered by an unmarried one. 39
39. Toiling and laboring hard for one’s family (wife and children and dependent) is like becoming the warrior of a holy war on the course of Allah. 40
40. Our intercession and mediation will not be won and attained by that person who depreciates and undervalues the services (prayers a Muslim offers five times a day.) 41
1. Tuhaf al-Uqul. P .3.32
2. Faroo Al Kafi Vol. 8. P 247
3. Al Wasail Vol. 18, P 99
4. Tuhaf al-Uqul, P .365
5. Amali Sadduk, P 162
6. Tuhaf al-Uqul, P .36.3
7. Usool e Kafi Vol. 2. P 171
8. Usoool e Kafi Vol. 2. P 166
9. Usool e Kafi Vol. 2, P 170 Faithful’s right upon his brother.’
10. Usool e Kafi Vol. 2, P 166, Chapter: Brotherhood of faithful’s
11. Maanj Al Ekhbar. P .394
12. Bihar ul-Anwar. Vol. 73. P 48
13. Raozatal Waizeen. P 499
14. Bihar ul-Anwar Vol. 78. P 278
15. Tuhaf al-Uqul. P 362
16. Tuhaf al-Uqul. P 366
17. Usool e Kafi Vol. 2. P 105
18. Tuhaf al-Uqul, P 304
19. Usool e Kafi Vol. 2, P 47, The qualities of the faithful.
20. Usool e Kafi Vol. I. P 47
21. Tuhaf al-Uqul P 304
22. Tuhaf al-Uqul P302
23. Tuhaf al-Uqul. P 305
24. Bihar ul-Anwar Vol. 13, P419/420
25. Tuhaf al-Uqul, P 301
26. Usool e Kafi Vol. 2, P 239, (Chapter: The faithful and his signs)
27. Tuhaf al-Uqul P 324
28. Tuhaf al-Uqul P 302
29. Bihar ul-Anwar Vol. 78, P 246
30. Tuhaf al-Uqul, P 303
31. Bihar ul-Anwar, Vol. 78, P 241
32. Qarb ul-Asnad, P 26
33. Usul-Al Kafi, Vol. 2, P 312
34. Bihar ul-Anwar, Vol. 27, P 242
35. Tuhaf al-Uqul. P 305
36. Zaloom is the superlative degree of zalim meaning ‘oppressor or tyrant.” The terrifically tyrant and cruel would be named zaloom in Arabic language, whereas any ordinal cruel person would be known zalim (cruel). Almonjed, the Arabian-English dictionary, not finding a proper term against zaloom (the tyrant most) has referred it to zalim (the ordinal’ cruel).
37. Tuhaf al-Uqul P 316
38. Bihar ul-Anwar Vol. 8. P 56
39. Bihar ul-Anwar Vol. 103, P 219
40. Wasail ul-Shia Vol. 12, P 23
41. Undervaluing and degrading the prayers would range from not offering it to offering it sluggishly, slackly, out of its time and developing indifferent and careless attitude towards it. And not showing promptness, vigil and suitable care in its performance.
Compiled by: Shaykh Mohammad Ishtihardi