The sura starts with five awakening oaths, including dawn, ten nights, even, odd and night.
Dawn may be applied to any light shining in the heart of darkness, such as shining of Islam and Mohammad (SA) in the darkness of age of ignorance or rise of Hazrat Mahdi (AS) when the world is drowned in the darkness of injustice.
Ten nights is mostly known to be the “Ten nights of Dhu al-Hijjah” during which the greatest and the most striking worship and political gathering of the Moslems of world happens. Some have also assumed it to be the last ten nights of month of Ramadan, known as “Nights of Power”.
Even and odd may refer to Eid ul Adha and Arafeh Day in proportion with the ten nights of Dhu-al-Hijjah. Or it may refer the Shafa”and Vatar prayer which is said at the end of night prayer.
Night too is one of the signs of divine magnificence as it adjusts temperature, stills everything and provides a tranquil and suitable atmosphere for praying God.
Reference is made here to several powerful nations who rebelled and disbelieved and their painful end.
Ad was the people of prophet Hud (AS), living about 700 B.C. in Yemen, Iram city.
Thamud was one of the oldest tribes whose prophet was Salih (AS) and lived in Vadi-ul-Ghora between Medina and Syria. They were civilized and lived in welfare and big buildings.
The third is Pharaoh who was called, “Lord of stakes” as he had numerous hosts many of whom lived in the tents and fastened the military tents with strong stakes. He also tortured people through fastening their feet and hands to the earth or a piece of wood with stakes, and left them alone to die. This could be another reason for calling him with this title.
They are characterized with transgression in the cities and making mischief (including any kind ofinjustice, oppression, aggression, self-indulgence, debauch) therein.
However, no one could escape divine chastisement, as He is lurking for the oppressors and tyrants and destroys them whenever He wills. This is His practice and is applicable to all the rebellious and tyrants.
Divine trials are realized through granting favor or various types of calamity. His favors should not cause pride; neither should deprivation of His favors cause despair and disappointment.
His trials are the code of man”s development and perfection, and thereby, man deserves to receive reward or chastisement.
The causes of deserving divine chastisement are counted to be not honoring orphans, not encouraging each other to feed the poor, devouring inheritance of the poor greedily and loving wealth so much that you may commit any sin for gaining it.
As we see all of above four trials are financial, and actually, if one could pass financial trials successfully, the other trials would be easier for him.
Man is warned here against the Day of Resurrection, when all deeds are reckoned and rewarded. When man sees the dreadful scenes of hell, he awakens and looks at his past and is regretful for what he has done, but his regret and repentance has no use.
The transgressors are punished in the worst way, while the righteous are rewarded in the best way.