SHAFAQNA – The God’s rules must not be ignored and cannot be changed by anyone. In the issue of rights which the rules are coordinated with it, if a person wants to exercise the law or to exert a right then this is called justice (Adl). If a person wishes to forgive, then this is a good deed and is called (Ehsan).
A society and country is run on the basis of ethics, not just by laws and regulations. It can be seen that rules alone cannot solve a country’s problems. In Ayah 40 of Surah Al-Shura, ethics and laws are mentioned together: Punishment for an inflicted criminal act is proportionate to it. However if a person overlooks things and reconcile shall receive reward from God. God does not like oppressors. In this Ayah, the rule of law and ethical conduct are explained next to each other, rights and justice together.
Where to forgive and where to carry out the justice, scholars and wise people know this. Once a criminal disturbs the order of a society, here is not the place for forgiveness and justice must be exercised. Another time a neglect has happened and if it is forgiven it can be compensated. If a person has been wronged and demands his/her rights, it is logical to do so, this person has not done anything wrong, this person can take revenge or can forgive and be tolerant, in this way he/she will be rewarded greatly by God as mentioned in Ayah 45 of Surah Al-Ma’edah.
Translated from part of speech by the Grand Ayatollah Javadi Amoli