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Shia Islam: The Human Geography of Shi’ism / 34

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī The Human Geography of Shi’ism The Shīʿa constitute a major group within the Muslim community. They have settled in different parts of the world. Due to their…

Shia Islam: Shīʿa contributions to Islamic civilization / 33 – d

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Study of narrators (ʿIlm al-Rijāl) ʿIlm al-rijāl is a branch of learning that deals with the biographies of the narrators of ḥadīth, particularly with regards…

Shia Islam: Shīʿa contributions to Islamic civilization / 33 – c

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Principles of Jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-Fiqh) It is quite obvious that deriving laws from the Qur’an, traditions, the Prophet’s biography, consensus and reason…

Shia Islam: Shīʿa contributions to Islamic civilization / 33 – b

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Qur’anic exegesis The Qur’an is simultaneously the primary source for Islamic beliefs and practices and the miracle of the Final Prophet. Muslim scholars from…

Shia Islam: Shīʿa contributions to Islamic civilization / 33 - a

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Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Shīʿa contributions to Islamic civilization The history of human civilization is such a vast topic that we cannot even offer a summary discussion of it in these…

Shia Islam: Imam al-Mahdī /32

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam al-Mahdī The twelfth Imam is the Mahdī. He was born in 868 AD in Samarra. His real name is Muḥammad and his tektonym is Abū al-Qāsim. The tyrannical…

Shia Islam: Imam Ḥasan ‘al-ʿAskarī /31

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam Ḥasan ‘al-ʿAskarī Imam Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī, the son of Imam al-Hādī, was the eleventh Shīʿa Imam. He was born in Medina in 846 AD and died in…

Shia Islam: Imam al-Hādī /30

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam al-Hādī Imam ʿAlī al-Naqi, the tenth Shīʿa Imam, was born in 827 AD (Mufīd, Irshād; Kashf al-Ghamma) and died in 868 AD. His teknonym was Abū al-Ḥasan,…

Shia Islam: Imam Jawād /29

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam Jawād Imam Muḥammad Taqī, better known as al-Al-Jawād (‘The Generous’), was born in Medina in 811 AD. He was killed by the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad…

Shia Islam: Imam al-Riḍā /29

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam al-Riḍā The eighth Shīʿa Imam, ʿAlī b. Mūsā al-Riḍā, was born in Medina in 765 AD. His parents were Imam Mūsā al-Kāẓim and Ṭāhira. He…

Shia Islam: Imam al-Kāẓim /28

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam al-Kāẓim  Imam Mūsā b. Jaʿfar, the seventh Shīʿa Imam, was born in 745 AD in Medina. He died in Baghdad in 799 AD. Yazīd b. Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik,…

Shia Islam: Imam al-Sādiq /27

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam al-Sādiq Imam al-Sādiq, the sixth the Imam, was born in 702 AD in Medina. He passed away in 765 AD there and buried in Baqīʿ Cemetry. His mother was…

Shia Islam: Imam al-Bāqir /26

Shafqna: Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam al-Bāqir Imam al-Bāqir, the son of Imam al-Sajjād, was born in Medina 676 AD and died in 743 in the same city. He was 36 when his father passed away.…

Shia Islam: Imam Sajjād /25

Shafaqna - Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam Sajjād The fourth Shīʿa Imam is Sajjād, the son of Imam Ḥusayn. He was born in 657 AD and passed away in 713 AD. Imam Sajjād was born at a time…

Shia Islam: Imam Ḥusayn /24

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam Ḥusayn The third Shīʿa Imam, Ḥusayn, was the second son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima. He was born in 626 AD. He was named in a ceremony similar to the one held for…

Shia Islam: Imam Ḥasan/ 23

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Imam Ḥasan Ḥasan, the first child of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, was born on March 4, 625 AD in Medina. His birth happened in the fasting month of Ramadan. The name Ḥasan…

Shia Islam: Fāṭima, daughter of the Prophet /22

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Fāṭima, daughter of the Prophet Fāṭima may not be an Imam but she is the mother of eleven infallible Imams and, without a doubt, the Imams owe their infallible characteristics…

Shia Islam: Twelve Imams /21

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Twelve Imams Adherents of Twelver Shi’ism, the largest branch of Shi’ism, are commonly referred to as Twelvers, derived from their belief in twelve divinely-ordained…

Shia Islam: The Sealing of Prophethood and the Book of Fāṭima /20

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī The Sealing of Prophethood and the Book of Fāṭima Like other Islamic sects, the Imāmiyya believe that the Messenger of Islam is the last prophet to be ordained by…

Shia Islam: The Righteousness of the Prophet’s Companions /19

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī The Righteousness of the Prophet’s Companions The Companions of the Prophet, known in Arabic as the Ṣaḥāba, are those people who were with the Prophet, some of…

Shia Islam: Wiping the feet in wuḍūʾ/18

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Wiping the feet in wuḍūʾ Islamic jurists are divided about whether the believer must wash or wipe his feet when performing wuḍūʾ. Some of them say it is obligatory…

Shia Islam: temporary marriage / 17

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Temporary marriage Our discussions here are mainly focused on Shīʿa doctrines and beliefs rather than legal and practical issues. However, some Shi’a practices are occasionally…

Shia Islam: the Rajʿa /16

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī The Rajʿa as depicted in the Qur’an and traditions The Shīʿa are often criticized for believing in the Rajʿa, which is mentioned in some Qur’anic verses and narrations.…

Shia Islam: Badāʾ/15

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Badāʾ Badāʾ (lit. ‘appearance’) is a Shīʿa doctrine rooted in the Qur’an and the tradtions of the Prophet. It is similar abrogation (naskh) and both stem from…

Shia Islam: The meaning of Taqiyya / 14

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Taqiyya The meaning of Taqiyya Taqiyya (‘dissimulation’) is a concept that appears in the Qur’an and has been highlighted in some verses. The Qur’an permits a believer…

Shia Islam: The Awaited Imam

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Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī The Awaited Imam All Muslims believe in the prophecy that a reformer will come to usher in an age of global justice. This doctrine cannot be denied by anyone with an understanding…

Shia Islam: Succession to the Prophet / 12

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Shafaqna – Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Chapter 12: Succession to the Prophet With the exclusion of the ʿAjārida sect of the Khawārij and Ḥatim al-ʿĀsamm of the Muʿtazila, all Muslims agree…

Shia Islam: The principal beliefs of Shīʿa / 11

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Shafaqna – Shīʿa Islam: History and Doctrines / Ayatullāh Jaʿfar Subḥānī Chapter 11: The principal beliefs of Shīʿa A brief study of the history of religions and sects would reveal that all the sects of Islam were produced as the…