The General Pattern of Islamic Thought in the Holy Quran


SHAFAQNA- Man’s effort and movement, which are the very reasons of his existence, have a starting point and a platform. That is called FAITH .Faith means to accept and to believe in what man is trying for, in the way which leads him to that aim and. finally, in his very effort and movement.
Without faith every movement or effort is evanescent and fruitless. Without faith searchers become discouraged and mirthless and, as a result, they become dumb, stagnant and motionless. Taking this reality into consideration, the Qur’an emphasizes on “faith” and “the faithful” and introduces this characteristic as the supreme value which stands at the peak of all human characteristics.
Now let us consider the list of the most important Islamic values and on the dignity of faith, which enjoys the highest rank among them, in the following verse:
It is not piety, that you turn your faces to the East and to the West. True piety is this: To believe in God, and the Last Day, the angels, the Book , and the prophets, to give of one’s substance, however cherished to kinsmen, and orphans, the needy, the traveler, beggars, and to free the slave, to perform the prayer, to pay the poor-due. And they who fulfill their covenant, when they have engaged in a coven­ ant, and endure with fortitude, misfortune, hardship and peril. These are they who are true in their faith. These are the truly God- fearing. (2:177).
In this way, in response to the believers of the Bible, who regard Judaism or Christianity as the only way of salvation, the Quran lays emphasis on the vast Islamic faith as the cause of man’s salvation:
Say you: “We believe in God, and in that which has been sent down on us and sent down on Abraham, Ismael, Isaac and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was given to Moses and Jesus and the prophets, of their Lord; we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we surrender. ‘And if they believe in the like of that you believe in, then they are truly guided ..(2:135- 136).

Conscious Faith
In this regard, the following subjects are to be seen in the Qur’an: Having faith in the principles and foundations of the religion is one of the outstanding characteristics of the Prophet of God and his true followers. It is so outstanding that the Qur’an has specifically emphasized on it, saying: The Messenger believes in what was sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers; each one believes in God and His angels, and in His Books and His messengers; we make no distinction between anyone of His messengers. They say, ‘We hear, and obey. Our Lord, (grant us) Thy forgiveness, our Lord! unto Thee is the homecoming’. “(2:285).
2. Faith arises from understanding, intellect and knowledge; it is not a blindfold and imitative belief. This very characteristic distincts faith from other wrong devotions which are often absurd, fading and devoid of any action.
In the following verses an evident indication of this kind of understanding can be observed: Surely in the creation of the heavens and earth, and in the alteration of night and day there are signs for men possessed of minds who remember God, standing and sitting and on their sides, and reflect upon the creation of the heavens and the earth: ‘Our Lord , Thou hast not created this for vanity. Glory be to Thee. Guard us against the chastisement of the Fire. Our Lord, whomsoever Thou admittest into the Fire, Thou wilt have abased; and the evil-doers shall have no helpers. Our Lord, we have heard a caller calling us to belief, saying, ..Believe you in your Lord” And so we believed.” (3:190-193).
3. Only an enlightened mind can perceive this knowledge and understanding; otherwise, faith would turn into a petrified and foolish bigotry and the way to truth and salvation would be blocked for man. This is why the Qur’an seriously condemns the bigoted and imitative faith of pagans. Let us consider the rebuking and meaningful tone of the following verse: ··And when it is said to them. ‘Come now to what God has sent down, and the Messenger, they say. Enough for us is what we found our fathers doing. · What even if their fathers had knowledge of naught and were nor guided?” (5:104).

Dynamic Faith together with Action
Does faith mean just an abstract belief or thought? Is faith worthy of consideration as far as it is dynamic and decisive in shaping our life?
The Qur’an always associates faith with action and regards it a motivation for crossing the way to the desired destination. In many verses of the Qur’an rewards of this and the next world are dependent upon the faith together with action. Listen to the Qur’an and think about what it says here: O believers, bow down and prostrate yourselves, and worship your Lord, and do good; haply so you shall prosper; and struggle for God as is His due, for He has chosen you, and has laid on you no impediment in your religion, being the creed of your father Abraham; He named you Muslims aforetime and in this, that the Messenger might be a witness against you and that you may be witnesses against mankind. So perform the prayer and pay the poor-due, and hold you fast to God; He is your protector an excellent protector, an excellent Helper. (22:77-78)
In the above verses the most important peculiarities of religious belief, which are victory, success, superiority, leadership of human beings and, finally, the support of God, are dependent upon the dynamic faith together with action. The following verse reminds us of actions resulting from faith and specifies the role of dynamic faith in an Islamic society.
“Those who believe, and have emigrated and struggled with their possessions and their souls in the way of God, and those who have given refuge and help those are friends of each other. And those who believe, but have not emigrated-you have no duty of friendship towards them till they emigrate; (8:72).

Faith and Its Responsibilities
According to the verses mentioned previously true faith is inseparable from action. Profiteers do not consider the responsibilities of faith as an obligatory promise. They accept these responsibilities as far as they are in harmony with their personal interests. Otherwise, they would not take care of these responsibilities at all.
In the culture of the Qur’an these people, who may have some sincere faith in their hearts, stored for the days of distress, are called faithless and disbelievers. The Quran promises salvation, prosperity, victory, superiority, to the faithful who, under all conditions, are attentive to the responsibilities of faith.
The following verses are the clear voice of the Quran in this regard.
“Now We have sent down signs making all clear; God guides whomsoever He willed to a straight path. They say, we believe in God and the Messenger, and we obey.’ Then after that a party of them turn away; those-they are not believers. When they are called to God and His Messenger that he may judge between them, lo, a party of them are swerving aside. But if they are in the right, they will come to him submissively. What, is there sickness in their hearts, or are they in doubt, or do they fear that God and His Messenger may be unjust towards them? Nay, but those- they are the evil-doers. All that the believers say, when they are called to God and His Messenger to judge between them, is that they say, ·we hear, and we obey, those­ they are the prospers. He who obeys Allah and His Messenger, and fears God, and keeps duty (unto Him); such indeed are the victorious (24:46- 52).
And finally in the following two verses, the Qur’an gives the pleasing promise of establishing the Divine government and ideal Islamic society over the world to those true believers when deeds arc decent and tied with faith.
‘”God has promised those of you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will surely make them successors in the land, even as He made those who were before them successors, and that He will surely establish their religion for them that He has approved for them, and will give them in exchange, after their fear, security: ‘They shall serve Me, not associating with Me anything … “‘(24:55).

Promises (1)
What does man need in order to obtain perfect prosperity?
1. He needs to know the aim and the right road to achieve it (guidance).
2. The veils of ignorance, ambition, fancy and every other thing which cast a cloud over man’s vision and his power of thinking should be removed. Instead, the light of truth should penetrate into his heart (light).
3. In his long way towards prosperity he should get rid of confusion and anxiety which are internal hindrances and are much more difficult than external ones to overcome (tranquility and security).
4. He should consider his struggle fruitful and hope for an agreeable conclusion.
5. His faults and guilt should be compensable and forgivable (forgiveness and pity).
6. At any time he should enjoy a reliable and firm hold.
7. When confronting the enemies, he should enjoy the fruits of a power superior to human being’s power.
8. He should be superior to the opposite rank.
9. He should overcome the enemies of his aim and way who are the obstacles to progress.
10. Finally, he should get rid of all the difficulties, hindrances, bondages in order to accomplish his aim (success and prosperity).
11. In every situation he should enjoy what ha; been ready for man in this world. At last, after the exhaustion of the span of life and finishing all the struggle”- he should face a decent reward and response in the convenient heaven.
Now let us consider the verses of the Qur’an which promise all these to those believers whose faith is accompanied with responsibility and action.

“Surely those who believe, and do deed, of righteousness, their Lord will guide them by their belief …;” (10:9).
··o men, a proof has now come to you from your Lord, We have sent down to you a manifest light. As for those who believe in God, and hold fast to Him. He will surely admit them to mercy from Him, and bounty, and will guide them to Him on a straight path. (4:174-175)
“But those who struggle in Our cause, surely We shall guide them in Our ways; and God is with the good-doers.”(29:69).
“God is the Guardian of the believers; He brings them forth from the darkness into the light. And the unbelievers-their patrons are idols that bring them forth from the light into the dark ness; those are the inhabitants of the Fire. There in dwelling forever. (2:257)
“O believer, remember God oft, and glorify Him at the dawn and in the evening. It is He who blesses you, and His angels (bless you), to bring you forth from the darkness into the light … “(33:-41-43)
·o believers, fear God, and believe in His Messenger, and He will give you twofold portion of His mercy, and He will appoint for you a light whereby you shall walk….(57:28)

Promises (2)

Tranquility and Security
To get rid of confusion and anxiety is one of the most important characteristics of the faithful. The Qur’an promises to provide the faithful with this valuable spiritual state.
“Those who believe, their hearts being at rest in God’s remembrance in God’s remembrance are at rest the hearts of those who believe and do righteous deeds, theirs is blessedness and a fair resort. ” (13:28-29)
Abraham (P.B.U. H.) explained this reality to the wandering pagans of his time who did not enjoy internal tranquility and peace due to the lack of any definite and logical ideology. He spoke about his inner ease and security the origin of which was his solid faith.
“His people disputed with him. He said. ‘Do you dispute with me concerning God, and He has guided me’.’ I fear not what you associate with Him, except my Lord will my Lord embraces all things in His knowledge; will you not remember? How should I fear what you have associated with God that whereon He has not sent down on you any authority:’ Which of the two parties has better title to security, if you have any knowledge? Those who believe. and have not confounded their belief with evildoing-to them belongs the true .security; they are rightly guided . “(6:80-82)

The faithful person knows that each step he takes makes him nearer to his aim. He knows that his efforts and activities are generally fruitful and none of them will be in vain.
And We appointed the qiblah which ye formerly observed only that We might know him who followeth the messenger, from him who turneth on his heels. In truth it was a hard (test) save for those whom Allah guided. But it was not Allah’s purpose that your faith should be in vain, for Allah is Full of Pity, Merciful toward mankind. (2:143)
”And whosoever does deeds of righteousness, being a believer, no un thankfulness shall befall his endeavors. Lo! We record (them) for him”. (21:94)

Monotheism in the Islamic Ideology
The Quranic monotheism is not an indifferent and irresponsible concept. It is rather a committed and a constructive notion. It is a way of thinking which has an effective role in the construction and administration of the society. It defines the aim and the strategy of the society. Monotheism is indeed one of the cornerstones – the principal one – of Islamic ideology.
The dependence of the world and man on the Superior Power (God) demands the world to have been created for a purpose. It also demands responsibility: that is man by using his power of thinking and decision should choose the straight path in order to achieve an aim. He should actually know this aim and the direction which ends in it.
Considering God as the only Creator of the world necessitates that the power of legislation be exclusive to His Will, and all the animate who possess common sense be subject to follow His rules (Exclusive Divinity). Also, the infinite knowledge of God demands that the competency of making rules of men, which are unavoidably based on man’s needs and interests, be solely confined to Him.
The uniform servitude of all the living things towards God necessitates that none of His creatures be granted the right to govern over others (negation of idolatry). It also necessitates that the leader of mankind be the one whom God himself has chosen to govern, either by appointing the infallible Imams or by defining the criteria for Islamic governors at the time of the infallible Imam’s absence.
The following verses of the Qur’an will elucidate parts of the Islamic thought about monotheism.
Yet of mankind are some who take unto themselves (objects of worship which they set as) rivals to Allah, loving them with a love like (that which is the due) of Allah (only) – those who believe are stauncher in their love for Allah – (On the day) when those who were followed disown those who followed (them), and they behold the doom, and all their aims collapse with them.
And those who were but followers will say: If a return were possible for us, we would disown them even as they have disowned us. Thus will Allah show them their own deeds as anguish for them, and they will not emerge from the Fire. (2: 165-167)

God Exclusive Obedience and Worship
So far we understood that monotheism is not only a philosophical concept but a belief on which man’s social and individual life should be based.
Some of the general articles of the Monotheistic Resolution the Qur’an are as follows: According to the principle of monotheism, human beings do not have the right to worship or obey any person or anything except God. On this basis all the sufferings and oppressions which have been imposed on mankind by false gods throughout the history have been devoid of any true justification. This general statement includes idols, gods, tyrants and finally the inclinations of the carnal soul. The following verses which are about false gods whether mankind or other things-clarify the general pattern of this aspect of monotheism.
‘And the day We shall muster them all, then We shall say to those who associate partners (with God): ·Get you to your place, you and your associates. Then We shall separate between them, and their associates will say, ‘Not us you were serving. God is a sufficient witness between us and you; assuredly we were heedless of your service. There every soul shall prove its past deeds: and they shall be restored to God, their Lord, and the True and there shall go astray from them that they were forging Say: ‘Who provides you out of the heaven and earth, or who possesses hearing and sight, and who brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living, and who directs the affair?’ They will surely say, ‘God’ Then say: ‘Will you not be God-fearing?”‘ (10:28-31)
Say: ‘ls there any of your associates who guides to the truth?’ Say: ‘God guides to the truth; and who is worthier to be followed-He Who guides to the truth, or he who guides not unless he is guided? What then ails you, how you judge?” (10:35)
It is clear that to guide and being guided is a quality which man deserves. Thus, the above verse is about those men who proclaim themselves as gods or consider themselves to be the partners of God and oblige other people to obey them as slaves. ! Islam negates the servitude to the pretended gods, being religious powers (monks) or political and economic powers (tyrants, nobles and rich men).
In a verse of the Qur’an Islam offers the following suggestion to the people of the Book:
Say: ‘People of the Scripture come now to a word common between us and you, that we worship none but God, and that we associate not aught with Him, and do not some of us take others as Lord s. apart from God.’ And if they turn their backs, say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims.”‘ (3:64)
However, the Qur’an considers people’s obedience to the true believers as an obedience to God , and in a few verses it introduces the executive powers of the Islamic community (the Prophet and those who are in authority, i.e. Ulil amr1.

The Spirit of Monotheism: Negation of Servitude to False Deities
Scrutinizing about some other verses of Qur’an will much more clarify the effect of monotheism and its monotheistic procedure on individual life and social organizations.
According to the Qur’an, the refusal to worship false gods does not necessarily imply that one is a monotheist. In order to be considered a monotheist, one has to negate the obedience to the opponents of God as well. This point is so much evident in the Qur’an that those who obey false gods are called idolaters. In this way worshipping God which is the meaning and the spirit of monotheism can be called the exclusive obedience and servitude to God.
Thus, the obedience to and the worshipping of false gods being in the form of an individual’s commands, public rules, social organization or so forth is considered idolatry. This is why with the protesting tone monotheism is manifested in the verses of the Qur’an such as the following: What shall I seek other than God for judge? For it is He Who sent down to you the Book well-explained; and those whom We have given the Book know it is sent down from thy Lord with the truth; so be not thou of the waverers. Perfect is the Word of thy Lord in truthfulness and justice; none can change His words; He is the All-hearing, the All-knowing. If thou obeys the most of those on earth they will lead thee astray from the path of God; they follow only surmise, merely conjecturing. Thy Lord knows very well who goes astray from His path; He knows best who erred from His way and He knows best t” rightly-guided. Eat of that over which God’s Name has been mentioned, if you believe in His signs. How it is with you that you do not eat of that over which God’s Name has been mentioned, seeing that He has explained for you that He has forbidden unto you unless you are constrained to it’.’ But surely many lead astray by their caprices. Without any knowledge; thy Lord knows best the transgressors. Forsake the outward sin, and the inward; surely the earners of sin shall be recompensed for what they have earned. And eat not of that over which God’s Name has not been mentioned; it is ungodliness. The Satan inspire their friends to dispute with you; if you obey them you are idolaters… (6:114-121)
And Paradise shall be brought forward for the God-fearing and Hell advanced for the erring. And it will be said unto them where were you serving apart from God: ‘ do they help you or help themselves?” Then they shall be pitched into it. They and the perverse and the hosts of lblis altogether. They shall say as they dispute there one with another. ‘By God we were certainly in manifest error when we made you equal with the Lord of all being. It was naught but the sinners that led us astray; so now we have no intercessors, nor a loyal friend. O that we might return again, and be among the believers! ·· Surely in that is a sign. Yet most of them are not believers…” (26:90- 103)

Monotheism and the Negation of Social Classes
Social discrimination has always been the great cruelty of the human history. In order to justify this cruelty, sometimes it is said: Different gods have created different classes of the society and therefore, each class has its own peculiar advantages and right.” Sometimes it is said, “The One God has granted particular rights to a special group of people when creating them.” On the whole at different stages of the history of man’s life this justification has had different forms and on this basis, the luxury of the highly distinguished class and deprivation of the oppressed class have been considered a natural necessity.
The principle of monotheism not only considers all the animate as creatures of One God but also obliterates the roots of social discrimination from the minds of human beings. A part of the monotheistic instructions which can be seen in the verses of the Qur’an is as follows:
Say: ‘Whose is the earth, and whose is in it, if you have knowledge? They will say, ‘God’s· Say: ·Will you not then remember?’ Say: ·Who is the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the mighty Throne? They will say, ‘God’. Say: ·will you not then be God-fearing? Say: In Whose hand is the dominion over all things and He protects, while against Him there is no protection. If you have knowledge? They will say. God, Say: ·How then arc you bewitched? Nay, but We brought them the truth, and they are truly liars. God has not taken to Hi1mself any son, nor is there any god with Him: for then each god would have taken off that he created and some of them would have risen up over other; glory be to God. Beyond that they described, who has knowledge of the unseen and the visible; high exalted be He, above that they associated!” (23:84-91).
“O mankind , worship your Lord Who created you, and those that were before you; haply so you will be God-fearing; who assigned to you the earth for a couch, and heaven for an edifice, and sent down out of heaven water, · wherewith He brought fourth fruits for your provision; so set not up compeers to God wittingly.” (2:21-22)
“O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and appointed you nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Surely the noblest among you in the sight of God is the most God- fearing of you. God is All-knowing. All-aware.” (49: 13)
“We have honored the Children of Adam and carried them on land and sea and provided them with good things, and preferred them greatly over many of those We created.” (17:70)

The Psychological Effects of Monotheism
Although the principal responsibility of monotheism is to establish a monotheistic society, that is a society where there is no class discrimination and the Divine rules and the command of Allah are dominant. The psychological effects of this belief in the spirit of the believers is tremendous and worth considering. On the whole it can be said that the monotheistic belief has two constructive dimensions: the construction of the society and the construction of the individual.
The follower of monotheism, under the influence of this belief enjoys important characteristic including, infinite hope, untiring effort, and protection against fright and lusts broad-mindedness rightly- chosen direction and so forth.
The Quran in some of its verses when speaking about faith and the life and efforts of the true believers clearly point out some of these characteristic . Example verses are as follow”
“And those who answered God and the Messenger after the harm had smitten them-to all those of them who did good and feared God, shall be a mighty wage; those to whom the people said.’The people have gathered against you, therefore fear them’; but it increased them in faith, and they said, ‘God is sufficient for us; an excellent Guardian is He. So they returned with blessing and bounty from God, untouched by any harm: they followed the good pleasure of God; and God is of abounding bounty. That is Satan frightening his friends. Therefore do not fear them; but fear Me. if you are believers.” (3: I 72-175)
1. Ulil-‘amr: Generally it means “those of you who are in authority”. But the question is that “Who is authority?” Some say that it refers to the Prophet(S) and his Household. It is also said that it refers to the juris consults. However ulil-‘amr are those people who are as immaculate as the Prophet(S). In the Surah of ‘Women’, verse 59,the Qur’an says: “O ye who believe obey Allah, and obey the Prophet and ulil-‘amr’.’ Here ulil-‘amr enjoys the same position as the Prophet. One is to obey the Prophet as he is to obey ulil-‘amr.

The Philosophy of Prophethood
What is the purpose of the Divine religions and what is the philosophy of “prophethood” which conveys the Divine messages of such religions? What is the meaning of ··prophet­ hood and what is its relation to the “prophetic mission.”
What are the goals of prophethood and the prophetic mission? What is the starting point of the prophets and what is the fruit of their endeavors? These questions and the like are fundamental subjects of “prophethood” which every true believer must be aware of. The Holy Our’an has given short perfect and clear answers to all these questions.
Prophethood is essential for man’s senses and instincts and even his knowledge are not enough to lead him to salvation. So he needs something superior to his intellectual power i.e. guidance through heavenly revelation. This heavenly revelation originates from God who is the Creator of man and aware of all his imperfections, needs, sufferings and the treatment for them. This is the logic of all religions of the world and the philosophy of “prophethood.”
Due to this need (heavenly guidance) the prophets are called to prophethood in order to bring into action programs which can meet it.
The above-mentioned points can be clearly found in some verses of the Qur’an as follows: “The people were one nation; then God sent forth the prophets, to hear good tidings and warning and He sent down with them the Book with the truth. That He might decide between the people touching their differences; and only those who had been given it were at variance upon it, after the clear signs had come to them. Being insolent one to another; then God guided those who believed to the truth, touching which they were at variance, by His leave and God guides whomsoever He wills to a straight path”. (2:213)
“All that is in the heavens and the earth magnifies God, the King, the All-holy, the All-mighty, and the All-wise. It is He Who has raised up from among the common people a Messenger of their own, to recite His verses to them and to purify them, and to teach them the Book and Wisdom, though before that they were in manifest error, and others of them who have not yet joined them. And He is the All-mighty, the All-wise. That is the bounty of God; He gives it to whom He wills, and God is of abounding bounty.” (62:1-4)

Calling to Prophethood
Prophethood is a prophetic mission (bi’thah). It is a resurrection after a period of immovability and tranquility. Initially this resurrection affects the prophet’s spirit and then his environs.
The prophet, enjoying extraordinary knowledge and background, is ready to accept the great responsibility. Of course, before being called to prophethood, this potential power is not carried into effect and he, as an ordinary man of his society, is engaged in daily efforts. The Divine inspiration revolutionizes the prophet and moves his spirit. Then, he is appointed to prophethood.
The following verses remind one of the beginning of this resurrection in the spirit of the Prophet of Islam: “By the early morning and the night when it falls! Thy Lord has neither forsaken thee nor hates thee and the Last shall be better for thee than the First. Thy Lord shall give thee, and thou shalt be satisfied. Did He not find thee an orphan, and shelter thee? Did He not find thee wandering and guide thee? Did He not find thee needy and suffice thee?” (93:1-8)
This inner resurrection which had considerable physical influences on the appearance of the Prophet (P.B. U .H.), begins with the following verse:
Recite: In the name of thy Lord who created; created man of a blood-clot, Recite: And thy Lord is the Most Generous, Who taught by the Pen, taught man that he knew not. No indeed; surely man waxes insolent for he thinks himself self-sufficient surely unto thy Lord is the returning. (96:1-8)
The following verses also indicate the same change in the Prophet’s spirit.
“By the star when it plunges, your companion is not astray, neither errs and nor speak s out of desire. It is naught but a revelation revealed, taught him by one of mighty powers very strong, he stood poised, being on the higher horizon, then drew near and suspended hung, two bows’ length away, or nearer, then revealed to His servant that He revealed .His heart lied not what he saw; what, will you dispute with him what he sees?” (53:1-12)
It is, however after the acquisition of this inner and spiritual motive that the Prophet’s way of life undergoes basic change. This is very the “responsibility of prophethood”.

Social Resurrection of Prophethood
Prophets appear in chaotic and deviated social conditions to establish a perfect human order conforming to man’s nature. In this way, “‘truth” replaces “falsehood”.
Man , whose nature is in harmony with the world’s nature, will find his way to evolution when he conforms to an order which is inspired by the world’s and man’s nature and to its rules which ate in proportion with his spiritual and physical structure. It is in this manner that he advances towards evolution.
Throughout history, ignorance and prejudice have reversed the way of humanity and by imposing inhuman systems have taken man out of his natural course (falsehood). Thus, the prophets are to lead him to the straight path. It is therefore understood that the prophet has to make his mis­led and ignorant society undergo a basic and complete change, and to establish a righteous system. This is the social resurrection which happens after the prophet is appointed to prophethood. In fact, through this great resurrection all the superficial and empty traditions and systems are overthrown, and a valid and correct system which is the religion of God replaces them.
In the following verses, we clearly see some general points about the inhuman system of pharaoh1’ and the Divine and natural system of Moses which had to replace it.
“Those are the signs of the Manifest Book. We will recite to thee something of the story of Moses and Pharaoh truthfully, for a people who believe. Now Pharaoh had exalted himself in the land and had divided its inhabitants into castes, abasing one party of them, slaughtering their sons, and sparing their women; for he was one of the mischief-makers. Yet We desired to be gracious to those that were abased in the land, and to make them leaders, and to make them the inheritors, and to establish them in the land, and to show Pharaoh and Haman, and their hosts, what they were dreading from them.” (28:2-6)
In some verses of the Quran , the necessity of making the religion of God conquer all other religions, i.e. , establishing a Divine order instead of an unheavenly one has been emphasized with similar words (in the Surahs): Repentance, Victory and the Ranks). A few verses from the Surah ‘The Ranks’ read as follows: “And who does greater evil than he who forges against God falsehood, when he is being called unto al- ‘Islam? And God guides never the people of the evil-doers. They desire to extinguish with their mouths the light of God. But God will perfect His light, though the unbelievers be averse. It is He Who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may uplift it above religion, though the idolaters be averse.”(61:7-9)

The Aims of Prophethood
It was discussed before that the prophet brings about a resurrection in the social order and overthrows all the idolatry foundations of the society. But what is the aim of this action?
The most supreme aim of the prophets is to make man get rid of abomination and evilness and achieve the highest degree of exaltation.
Man is created with a rich background of goodness and virtue, but only through a proper education he will be able to bring this potential power into action and achieve a higher degree of evolution. The aim of the prophets is to provide such an education. The Qur’an mentions this idea with the words “purification” and teaching”. In fact, through the proper education of the prophets. Man achieves humane characteristics and gets rid of inhumane ones, and in this way the ultimate aim of creation is fulfilled.
But what a way should man choose in order to bring his potential gifts into action and achieve exaltation? Among different answers, the answer of the prophets is to provide man with an intact environment which fits his natural structure. This environment is a monotheistic and divine society”. In such a society man’s way towards his ultimate and natural aim is rendered easy and accelerated and with a natural speed he paces in the straight path.
Therefore, the prophets in their way towards the ultimate aim have a short term aim and that is “to establish an Islamic and monotheistic society”, a society based upon justice, monotheism, man, reverence and away from cruelty, idolatry, superstition, ignorance and any other factor which humiliates man.
Thinking about the following verse, of the Qur’an will lead us to the above-mentioned facts.
“Indeed, We sent Our messengers with the clear signs, and We sent down with them the Book and the Balance so that men might uphold justice. And We sent down iron, wherein is great might, and many uses for men and so that God might know who helps Him, and His messengers. In the unseen. Surely God is All-strong, All-mighty.” (57:25)
“And prescribe for us in this world good, and in the Hereafter; we have repented unto Thee. Said He , ‘My chastisement- I smite with it whom I will ; and My mercy embraces all things and I shall prescribe it for those who ward off ( evil) and pay the poor-due, and those who believe Our revelations; those who indeed follow the Messenger, the Prophet of the common folk , whom they find written down with them in the Torah and the Gospel, bidding ‘ them to honour, and forbidding them to dishonour, making lawful for them the good things and making unlawful for them the corrupt things, and relieving them of their loads, and the fetters that were upon them. Those who believe in him and succor him and help him, and follow the light that has been sent down with him-they are the prosperous. ‘” (7: 156-157)

The First Calls of Invitation
The first call in the prophets’ invitation is the very call of monotheism, which is considered the principal element of their school of thought. The policy of the revolutionary plans of other schools of thought is based upon “graduation and, the first slogans are to provide the necessary background for the fulfilment of the aims. But in the plan of the prophets the last word is said first and everyone, in the very beginning steps of faith, knows the direction the aim and the consequence and thus, consciously chooses his way.
Both those who accept the call of the prophets and those who reject it come to an understanding when they come across the principle of monotheism. That in this school of thought (Islam), battle against man’s domineering commands, class privileges, exploitation and tyranny in any form is something natural in the same way that in an ideal social system it is natural to care about freedom, man’s reverence, social justice, public welfare and the abolishment of tyranny and oppression.
Therefore, the direction and the aim of the prophets’ school of thought is quite clear, and the very clarity causes the enemies and the true followers of the prophets to be distinguished from one another, and thus prevents the coming generations from ideological deviation.
The Holy Qur’an emphasizes repeatedly and in the words of the great prophets that the first call of the prophets concerns the ‘servitude to God’ and the rejection of false gods’ (i.e. …monotheism).
“Indeed, We sent forth among every nation a messenger, saying: ·worship God, and eschew false gods· Then some of them were God guided, and there were some against whom the error was due. So journey in the land, and behold how the end of the deniers was! (16:36)
“And We sent Noah to his people; and he said, ‘O my people, worship God! you have no god other than He; truly, I fear for you the chastisement of a Dreadful Day.” (7:59)
“And to “Ad (We sent) their brother. He said, ·o my people, worship God! You have no god other than He; will you not be God- fearing?'” Said the chiefs of the unbelievers of his people, ·we see thee in folly, and we think that thou art one of the liars’. Said he, ‘My people there is no folly in me; but I am a Messenger from the Lord of all being. I deliver to you the Messages of my Lord; and am your adviser, sincere, faithful. What, do you wonder that a reminder from your Lord should come to you by the lips of a man from among you? That he may warn you; and remember when He appointed you as successors after the people of Noah and increased you in stature broadly; remember God’s bounties; haply you will prosper.’ They said, ‘Why, hast thou come to us that we may worship God alone, and forsake that our fathers worshipped? Then bring us that thou promise us, if thou speaks truly. Said he, ‘Terror and wrath from your Lord have fallen upon you. What, do you dispute with me regarding names you have named, you and your fathers, for which God has sent down no authority? Then watch and wait; I shall be with you watching and waiting. ‘””(7:64-71)

The Opponents
So far, it was said that prophet hood is a social resurrection, which brings about fundamental changes in the society in support of the oppressed and deprived changes in opposition to the luxurious class of the society. This statement leads us to the exciting and the most important subject of prophet­ hood, i.e. the chapter of “conflict”.
It is quite obvious that whenever in history an opposition against class privilege’ has come about it has been supported by the deprived class and rejected by the upper class. This has been the origin of many conflicts between the two classes.
For complete recognition of these two groups, we will refer to the Qur’an. Somewhere in the Qur’an, the opponents of the prophets’ invitation are remembered in general, but somewhere else three specific names which are the representatives of three classes are mentioned. These are Pharaoh, Haman2 and Korah3, respectively being the symbols of ruling, statesmen and rich classes. In some other parts of the Qur’an the class of clergymen added to these three. In the view of the Qur’an, the four following titles are indicative of four groups or classes who are stubbornly in opposition to the prophets’ mission: Taghut4, Mala5, Mutrafin6 Anbar7 and Ruhhan8.
In the following verses, one of the many examples of the Qur’an about this classification can be seen.
“So We have appointed to every prophet an enemy-satans of men and jinn, revealing tawry speech to each other, all as a delusion; yet, had thy Lord willed they would never have done it. So leave them to their forging, and that the hearts of those who believe not in the Hereafter may incline to it, and that they may be well pleased with it, and that they may gain what they are gaining …(6:112- 113)
“We also sent Moses with Our signs and a clear authority, to Pharaoh, Haman and Korah; they said, ‘A lying sorcerer’ And when he brought them the truth from Us, they said, ‘Slay the sons of those who believe with him, and spare their women’. But the guile of the unbelievers is ever in error.(40:23-25)
“We sent no warner into any city except its men who lived at ease said, ‘We disbelieve In the Message you have been sent with·. They also said, We are more abundant in wealth and children and we shall not be chastised.”‘(34:34-35)
”0 believers many of the rabbis and monks indeed devour the property of the people in vanity and bar from God’s way. Those who treasure up gold and silver, and do not expend them in the way of God­ give them the tidings of a painful chastisement. (9:34)

The Consequences of Prophethood (1)
The way to which the prophets lead people is based on the human nature and because people’s movement in that way is a natural one it is carried out more easily and faster. Since despotic and ignorant governments, who keep people away from this way, commit actions contrary to man’s nature. They are impermanent and are condemned to annihilation.
This shows the consequences of the prophet’s mission and their prophet hood. Contrary to the superficial ideas, the prophet’s movement has been a successful one and it was the divine prophets who succeeded in guiding people on the whole to the straight path they wanted. And this will continue until Doom’s Day.
Each of these t rue messengers of God in a special career of history has facilitated man’s way towards exaltation and social evolution which is the very aim of man’s creation. After constant struggle, these prophets have died, but at the end of their mission they have trusted the divine responsibility of man’s guidance to the prophet or authority after them. Due to this fact, man in the course of history, has always been optimistic to the prophets’ invitation and the way they proposed. This natural view will continue in this manner till the last divine authority takes the final step in the way of man’s education and guidance.
At that time, man, without any hindrance, will travel in the infinite highway of exaltation and evolution more easily and faster than ever. This is the con­ sequence of all the prophets and their ways. An important point is that successes depend on two important factors: faith and patience. Failures amidst the way are due to the lack of these two factors, but the proper use of them brings about outstanding victories. The following verses are a part of the relevant verses of the Qur’an about this subject.
Say: ‘God is the Creator of everything, and He is the One, the Omnipotent.’ He sends down from the sky water, and the valleys flow each in its measure, and the torrent carries a swelling scum; and out of that over which they kindle fire being desirous of ornament of ware, out of that rises a scum the like of it. So God strikes both the true and the false. As for the scum, it vanishes as jetsam, and what profits men abides in the earth. Even so God strikes His similitudes. For those who answer their Lord the reward most fair: and those who answer Him not-if they possessed all that is in the earth and the like of it with it they would offer it for their ransom. Those theirs shall be the evil reckoning and their refuge shall be Hell-an evil cradling” (13:16-18)
“Already Our Word has preceded to Our servants the messengers: assuredly they shall be helped and Our host-they are the victors. So turn thou from them for a while and see them: soon they shall see! What do they seek to hasten Our chastisement’.’ When it light in their courtyard how evil will he the morning of them that arc warned! So tum thou from them for a while and see soon they shall see,! Glory be to thy Lord the Lord of Glory above that they describe! (37: 171-180)

The Consequences of Prophethood (2)
History shows that whenever the prophets’ invitation has been accompanied by faith and patience they have been successful in establishing a divine system and in throwing out the despotic system. Taking the general aim of prophet hood in to consideration it is, understood that all the prophets even those who have apparently failed to fulfil their mission in a special phase, have succeeded in achieving their ultimate aim which is the exaltation of thought and man’s spirit in such a way that enables him for the acceptance of the next phase.
The Qur’an has clearly mentioned this fact either through reporting the adventures of the prophets or through telling the great Prophet(S) and other Muslims some facts about all the prophets.
“Surely Wes hall help our messengers and those who have believed, in the present life, and upon the day when the witnesses arise, upon the day when their excuses shall not pro f it the evil-doer and theirs shall be the curse, and theirs the evil abode. We also gave Moses the guidance, and We bequeathed upon the children of Israel the scripture for a guidance and for a reminder to men possessed of minds. So be thou patient; surely God’s promise is true. And ask forgiveness for thy sin, and proclaim the praise of thy Lord at evening and dawn.” (40:51-55)
“How many a city that was evildoing We have shattered, and set up after it another people. Then, when they perceived Our might, behold, they ran heading out of it. “Run not! Return you unto the luxury that you exulted in, and your dwelling-places; haply you shall be questioned.'” (21:11-13)
“We said, o fire be cool and safety for Abraham ,.. They desired to outwit him; so We made them the worse losers, and We delivered him, and Lut unto the land that We had blessed for all beings. And We gave him Isaac and Jacob a grandson, and made them all righteous and appointed them to be leader’ guiding by Our command them the doing of good deeds, and to perform the prayer and to pay the poor-due and Us they worshipped.” (21:69-73)

Faith in Prophethood and its obligations
One of the most practical points of prophet hood is’ that with regard to the philosophy of prophet hood its spirit and its contents the acceptance of the prophet’s invitation is accompanied by the acceptance of certain obligation. In other words the person who has accepted the prophet” invitation should pursue the very way of the prophet and should also help him in fulfilling his responsibility. This, in fact demonstrates his faith in the prophethood of the prophet.
Prophethood brings about a new dominion of thought and proposes new thoughts, ways and aims. The faithful is the one who accepts these thoughts, searches for these aims and examines these ways. Being an opponent is not necessarily dependent on opposition; just not to agree or assist is sufficient. In making ranks between the prophet and his opponents those who stand amidst are not of the prophet as well. Anyone who is not for him is’ against’ him .This fact is clearly announced in several verses of the Quran.
“Those who believe and have emigrated and struggled with their possessions and their selves in the way of God and those who have given refuge and help-those are friends one of another. And those who believe, but have not emigrated-you have no duty of friendship towards them till they emigrate; yet if they ask you for help in religious matter, it is your duty to help them except against a people between whom and you there is a treaty and God sees the things you do.
As for the unbelievers, they are friends one of another. Unless you do this, there will be persecution in the land and great corruption. And those who believe, and have emigrated and struggled in the way of God and those who have given refuge and help-those in truth are the believers and theirs shall be forgiveness and generous provision. And those who have believed afterwards and emigrated, and struggled with you they belong to you … “(8:72-75)
And when God took covenant with the prophets: ‘That 1 have given you of Book and Wisdom; then there shall come to you a Messenger confirming what is with you, you shall believe in him and you shall help him; do you agree?’ He said. ‘And do you take My load on you on that condition?’ They said. ‘We do agree. God said. ‘Bear witness so, and 1 shall be with you among the witnesses.’ Than whosoever turns his back after that — they are miscreants.” (3:81-82)
“The likeness of those who have been loaded with the Torah. Then they have not carried it, is as the likeness of an ass carrying books. Evil is the likeness of the people who have denied God’s signs. God guides never the people of the evil-doers.” (62:5)
1. Pharaoh: It is the name of the kings of Egypt in general. It is also the surname of Walid ibn Mus’ab, king of Egypt, contemporary with Moses. He is a tyrant ruler and is the symbol of cruelty and despotism.
2. Haman: It is the name of Pharaoh’s vizier.
3. Korah: In the Old Testament he is called the Korah and in the Qur’an he is called Qarun. He is as vicious as Pharaoh and Haman. He is Pharaoh’s treasurer. The Qur’an in the Surah of “The Story” tells us about his life. He is an oppressor from the family of Israel. He is too rich, but does not help the poor. Misusing his wealth and power, he is the source of corruption in the society. At last he is destroyed by God’s Will. In an earthquake, he and his family are killed.
4. Taghut: By taghut we mean false god. Taghut is an idol, a demon , or any object worshipped (except God).
5. Mala’: It refers to a body of men of high ranks, i.e., statesmen.
6. Mutrafin: It refers to a person who is blessed with affluence, (pl. of mutraf) and is allowed to enjoy oneself without interruption. It refers to the rich who have opposed the prophets because the prophets have kept them from debauching.
7. Abar: Generally it refers to learned men. But in the (pl. of abr) Surah “Repentance” verse 34 it seems to refer to the Jewish rabbis.
8. Ruhban: Generally it refers to a person who is pious and (pl. of rahib) fears God. In common usage it refers to Christian monks.

The new thought and vision which is proposed by God through the Prophet promises a new life. This can be achieved only if that thought can establish its identity in the mind and action of an integrated community.
For such a community which forms a solid and impenetrable front strongly tries not to efface when confronting the opposite thoughts and actions. This purpose require” the rejection of any dependence-if necessary or possible even breaking off the ties of ordinary relationship-which enfeebles the front of the believers. In the language of the Qur’an this intellectual and practical stand from the point of view of thought and action is called ‘walayah1’
Again when this integrated group, which is the cornerstone of Islamic society and the principal basis of Islamic community, changes to a strong nation and establishes an Islamic society , it needs to observe the principle of walayah in order to preserve its unity and integrity and avoid the penetration of its enemies.
The Quran points out these ideas in several verses as follows: ..O believers, take not My enemy and your enemy for friend; offering them love, though they have disbelieved in the truth that has come to you, expelling the Messenger and you because you believe in God your Lord. If you go forth to struggle in My way and seek My good pleasure, secretly loving them yet I know very well what you conceal and what you publish ; and whosoever of you does that, has gone astray from the right way. If they come on you, they will be enemies to you and stretch against you their hands and their tongues, to do you evil. and they wish that you might disbelieve. Neither your blood­ kindred nor your children shall profit you upon the Day of Resurrection. He shall distinguish between you. And God sees the things you do. You have had a good example in Abraham, and those with him, when they said to their people, ·we are quit of you and that you worship.
Apart from God. We disbelieve in you and between us and you enmity has shown itself, and hatred for ever, until you believe in God alone. ‘(60:1- 4)

The Relations of Islamic Community
After the establishment of the great ‘community’, the integrated group which is the origin of the Islamic Nation. Expands to the extent of all the true believers of the world. In such a community the principle of ‘walayah’ influences its civil and foreign affairs.
In civil affairs, all the units and wings of the nation are obliged to carefully prepare all the force in one way and for one aim and strongly avoid dispersion and disorder which cause the futility of some parts of these forces.
In foreign affairs, they should abstain from any relation· ship and friendship which endangers independence and authority of the world of Islam.
It is quite obvious that taking care of the two aspects of ‘walayah’ (integrity and coordination in internal affairs, freedom and non-alliance in foreign affairs) requires a central and superior power which is, in fact, the crystallization of all the constructive elements of Islam (Imam’2- the Islamic governor). It also requires a deep and strong relationship between all the members of the Islamic community and the Islamic governor (Imam). Here another aspect of ‘walayah’ is manifested and that is the Imam’s ‘walayah’ and the leader­ ship of the Islamic world.
In the following verses the Qur’an has skillfully mentioned these subtle facts.
“O believers, take not Jews and Christians as friends; they are friends of each other. Who so of you makes them his friends is one of them. God guides not the people of the evil-doer. Yet thou sees those in whose hearts is sickness vying with one another to come to them, saying, ‘We fear lest a turn of fortune should smite us. But it may be that God will bring the victory, or some commandment from Him, and then they will find themselves, for that they kept secret within them. Remorseful, and the believers will say, what, are these the ones who swore by God most earnest oaths that they were with you?
Their works have failed; now they are losers. ‘ O believers, whosoever of you turns from his religion, God will assuredly bring a people He loves, and who Love Him, humble towards the believers, disdainful towards the unbelievers, men who struggle in the path of God, not fearing the reproach of any reproacher. That is God’s bounty; He bestow; His favors upon whomever He wills And God is All-embracing, All-knowing. Only your friend is God, and His Messenger and the believer who perform the prayer and pay the poor-due (zakat), while bowing down (in prayer).” (5:51-55)
“O believers, fear God as He should be feared and do not die unless you are Muslims. And you hold fast to God’s bond, together and do not scatter … “(3:102- 103)

The Paradise of Walayah
Only that society can enjoy having ‘walayah’ in which the wali3 is ascertained the one who is the authority and the inspirer of all the liveliness and activities of life. And a person can enjoy having ‘walayah’ if he has a true understanding of the wali and if he is in a constant struggle to connect himself with him , who is the manifestation of God’s walayah. So far as the wali is God’s successor and the manifestation of the Divine authority and justice on the earth. He uses all the possibilities and talents, which are disposed in men’s nature for their evolution and exaltation and for their own benefit.
Furthermore, he would not let any of these talents he used against humanity or he lost for if it happened, it would be a great damage. He firmly fixes justice and security in the community which are necessary for man’s flourishing as are rich soil, water and good weather necessary for the growth of a plant. He will stop the appearance of cruelty in any form (polytheism. doing injustice to others or oneself. He leads all towards God’s servitude. He ripens man’s knowledge and vision and leads him to endeavor and initiation. His principal obligations are: keeping up prayer for God’s remembrance (salat4) just distribution of wealth zakat5, spreading of goodness ( al-‘amar bil-maruf6) and abolishment of wicked ness (al-nahy ‘anal-munkar7). In short he helps man to approach the ultimate aim of creation.
Thinking about the following verses will show us the vast horizons of walayah’s paradise and will once more emphasize the fact that none of the religious commandments is as important as walayah.
“Cursed were the unbelievers of the Children of Israel by the tongue of David .and Jesus. Mary’s son; that for their rebelling and their transgression. They forbade not one another any dishonor that they committed; surely evil were the things they did. Thou seest many of them making unbelievers their friends. Evil is that they have forwarded to their account that God is angered against them and in the chastisement they shall dwell forever. Yet had they believed in God and the Prophet and what has been sent down to him they would not have taken them as friends; but many of them are of evil conduct. (5:78- 81)
‘”O believers, take not as your friends those of them, who were given the Scripture before you and the unbelievers-who take your religion for a jest and sport-and fear God, if you are believers-and when you call to prayer, they take it for a jest and sport ; that is because they are a people who have no understanding. Say: ‘People of the Scripture. Do you blame us for any other cause than at we believe in God, and what has been sent down to us and what was sent down before and that most of you are evil-livers?” Say: “Shall I tell you of a recompense with God worse than that’.’ Whomsoever God has cursed, and with whom He is worth and made some of them apes and swine, and worshippers of idols-they are worse situated and have gone further astray from the right way.’ (5:57-60)

About Walayah (1)
The principle of walayah, discussed in the Qur’an comprehensively can he considered from many point of views. Sometimes each of them can be regarded as a principle in itself in understanding Islam. If one think attentively about the following verses some of these point of views can be observed.
I. The wali of the Islamic society, that is the power which leads all the mental and practical activities of the society, is God or whomever God has assigned-either in name or by signs-for walayah.
“Your guardian wali is only God and His Messenger and the believers who perform the prayer and pay the Zakat while bowing down (5:55)
“God commands you to deliver trusts back to their owners; and when you judge between the people that you judge with justice. Good is the admonition God gives you; God is All -hearing. All- seeing. O believers obey God, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. It’ you have a dispute on anything, refer it to God and the Messenger, if you believe in God and the Last Day; that is better and fairer in the issue. (4:58-59)
“Whosoever obeys the Messenger, thereby obeys God; and whosoever turns his back we have not sent thee to be a watcher over them.”(4:80)
..Hast thou not regarded those who assert that they believe in what has been sent down to thee, and what was sent down before thee, desiring to take their disputes to idols, yet they have been commanded to disbelieve in them? But Satan desires to lead them astray into far error.”(4:60)
God’s walayah and its acceptance by the believers has a mental foundation which has been taken into consideration in the Islamic world view and is a natural phenomenon.
And to Him belongs whatsoever in habit’ the night and the day; and He 1s the All­ hearing, the All-knowing, Say: ‘Shall I take to myself a’ guardian other than God the Originator of the heaven’ and of the earth, He Who feed’ and is not fed?’ say: ‘I have been commanded to be the first of them that surrender: “Be not thou of the idolaters.”‘”(6: 13-14)

About Walayah (2)
Any walayah except the walayah of God and His viceroys is the walayah of taghut and Satan. The acceptance of Satan’s walayah makes Satan dominant over all the constructive and creative forces of man which he will use in the way of his own lusts. As far as taghut does not consider any essentiality for anything except his own benefits and due to his lack of information about man’s needs and his possibilities in Nature. His leadership for human community is the origin of damage and loss of man’s valuable energies. The very lack of information in the community under the dominance of taghut’s walayah deprives its people of the brightness of knowledge. Humanity and God’s life-giving rules and confines them in the darkness of ignorance, lusts selfishness and perverseness.
The Holy Quran says: ..When thou recites the Quran seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan; he has no authority over those who believe and trust in their Lord: his authority is over those who take him for their friend and ascribe associates to God. ·· (16: 98-100)
Brings them forth from the darkness into the light. And the unbelievers-their patrons are idols, that bring them forth from the light into the darkness; those are the inhabitants of the Fire, therein dwelling forever. “(2:257)

About Walayah (3) -Hijrah
Taghut’s and Satan’s walayah in a community makes the true believer dependent on taghut’s power in many different ways and encumbers him with its invisible net: his freedom is taken away and he is unconsciously let to the end which that system is doomed to. Such a system prevent the true believer from spending his power in the way of Islam.
This inevitable reality proposes the phenomenon of “hijrah8″. Hijrah means escaping from taghut bondage and getting to the free environs of Islam where everything guides man to the divine aim , where the natural process of the society is leading towards exaltation , mental and material evolution , where goodness prevails and no signs of malignity can be seen that is, the Islamic community.
Therefore, according to the principle of walayah, hijrah, is an essential and urgent obligation for the true believer. He is to transfer from the taghut’s environs to the Islamic community and step into the environs of God walayah.
Thinking about the verses of” hijrah” in the Qur’an reveals many points about this subject.
“They wish that you should disbelieve as they disbelieve, and then you would be “But whoso makes a breach with the Messenger after the guidance has become clear to him and follows a way other than the believers. Him We shall turn him over to what he himself has turned to and We shall roast him in Gehenna-an evil homecoming. God forgives not that aught should be with Him associated; less than that He forgives to whomsoever He wills. Whoso associates with God anything, has gone astray into far error. Instead of Him, they pray not except to female beings; they pray not except to a rebel Satan accursed by God. He said, ‘Assuredly I will take unto myself a portion appointed of Thy servants, and I will lead them astray, and fill them with fancies, and I will command them and they will cut off the cattle’s ears; I will command them and they will alter God’s creation.’ Who so takes Satan to him for a friend, instead of God, has surely suffered a manifest loss. He promises them and fills them with fancies but there is nothing Satan promises them except delusion. “(4:115-120)
“God is the Guardian of the believers; He equal; therefore take not to yourselves friends of them, until they emigrate in the way of God; then, if they tum their backs, take them, and kill them wherever you find them; take not to yourselves anyone of them as friend or helper” (4:89)
“Those who believe, and have emigrated and struggled with their possessions and their selves in the way of God, and those who have given refuge and help-those are friends one of another. And those who believe, but have not emigrated-you have no duty of friendship towards them till they emigrate; yet if they ask you for help, in religion’s matter, it is your duty to help them, except against a people between whom and you there is a compact, and God sees the things you do. As for the unbelievers, they are friends one of another. Unless you do this there will be persecution in the land and great corruption. And those who believe, and have emigrated and struggled in the way of God and those who have given refuge and help those in truth are the believers. And theirs shall be forgiveness and generous provision. “(8:72-74)
“And those the angels take (in death), while still they are wronging themselves­ the angels will ask, ‘In what circumstances were you?’ They will say, ‘We were oppressed in the earth.’ The angels will say, ‘But was not God’s earth wide, so that you might have emigrated in it?’ For such men, their refuge shall be Gehenna. and evil homecoming-except the men, women, and children who, being oppressed , can devise nothing and are not guided to a way; haply them God will yet pardon for God is All-pardoning, All- forgiving. Whoso emigrates in tile way of God will find in the earth many refuges and plenty; whoso goes forth from his house an emigrant to God and His Messenger, and then death over takes him, his reward is then incumbent on God; surely God is All- for­ giving. All-compassionate. (4-97-100).
1. Walayah: It means continuing or following without inter­mission, friendship. Affection, patronage, clientage.
2. Imam: It means one who stands before or is followed, a head. Chief, leader especially in religious matters. Imam can be a person or a book. As a book, it refers to the Qur’an. As a person it refers to the innocent and just people whom God has appointed.
3. Wali: It means administrator. It also means a sincere friend, a helper or guardian. In Surah of “The Cow” verse 257, the Qur’an says: “Allah is the Wali (the Guardian) of those who believe. He bringeth them out of darkness into light.”
4. Salat: This word refers to prayers, those especially prescribed by Islam which are recited five times a day. Salat is considered the cornerstone of all other duties in Islam.
5. Zakat: Generally it means the wealth which is given in the way of God, by way of purifying or securing to the rest of one’s possessions. Zakat was meant to fill the gap between the rich and the poor in the society.
6. Al-‘amr bil-ma’ruf: It means to command to do what is right, lawful, or kind in the eyes of God and man.
7. Al-nahy ‘an al-munkar: It is the prohibition of what is wrong, unlawful, hateful in the eyes of God and man. In the Surah of “The Family of ‘lmran’ verse 104. the Qur’an says:
“And there should spring from you a nation who invite to goodness, and enjoin right conduct (al­ ‘amr bil-ma’ruf ) and forbid indecency (al-nahy ‘an al-munkar)’.’
8. Hijrah: It generally means departure from one’s country and friends. In the tradition of the Qur’an it means leaving the region of blasphemy and entering the region of faith. In particular it refers to the Prophet’s abandoning Mecca because of its mounting hostility, and transferring himself and his followers to Yathrib. 200 miles north whose people had invited him. He arrived on the 20th of September.622 A.D, and the city proudly changed its name to “Medina tul Nabi­ the Prophet’s City”.

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