SHAFAQNA-In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Indeed We have given you AL-KAWTHAR
So pray to your God and offer sacrifice (to God)
Indeed it is your enemy that is ABTAR (108:1-3)
The chapter of Al-Kawthar (108) is one of the shortest Surahs of the Holy Quran. Some Mufassireen say it was revealed in Medina and according to some, it was revealed in Makkah. But from the nature of this Surah and given its background, there appears no doubt that this Surah was revealed in Makkah.
One day Aas bin Wail, a leader of the polytheists of Makkah saw Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) coming out of Masjidul-Haraam. So he stopped and conversed to him for some time. Meanwhile, the other elders of the polytheists observed their chatting from a distance. When the talk was over and Aas joined his people, they asked, Aas! Whom were you chatting to? Aas pointed towards the Prophet (PBUH) and said: With that person who is ABTAR. (Tafseer of S V Mir Ahmad Ali)
ABTAR in Arabic is a person who is tail-less. In other words, it is in reference to one without posterity. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has two sons from Lady Khadeeja (SA) namely Qasim and Tahir, also known as Abdullah. Since both of them died, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) remained without sons, so the Arabs began calling him ABTAR meaning tail-less. Surah al-Kawthar was revealed as a consolation to the Holy Prophet (PBUH).
The term AL-KAWTHAR has two meanings:
1- A stream of Super Excellence.
The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said, Al-Kawthar is a stream of super excellence exclusively belonging to me. Only the righteous believers (among my followers) shall be allowed to drink from it. Ali will distribute its water to them. On the day of Judgement, I will see some of my companions driven like cattle away from Al-Kawthar. It will be announced that they are those, who after my departure from the world, had deviated from the true religion and introduced innovations to corrupt the faith. (Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hambal)
Imam Jafar ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq (AS) has said: Al-Kawthar is a stream in Paradise, which Allah (SWT) has gifted to His Prophet (PBUH) as a recompense for the death of his son Abdullah. (Tafseer-e-Namoona)
2- Bounties in Abundance
Al-Kawthar also refers to Khayr-e-Katheer; Bounties in Abundance. Allah (SWT) blessed the Holy Prophet (PBUH) with plenty of great bounties such as: prophethood, miraculous Book of Quran, companions in large number, success in battles, kingship and acceptance of Islam by many people.
In addition to all the above bounties, because in the last verse of this Surah, Allah (SWT) says: Indeed it is your enemy that is ABTAR, this by itself also proves that Al-Kawthar also refers to the one and only beloved daughter of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Seyyidah Fatima al-Zahra (SA) through whom Allah (SWT) gave His beloved Prophet (PBUH) abundance of descendants. (Tafseer-e-Namoona)