Date :Saturday, April 11th, 2020 | Time : 18:18 |ID: 140842 | Print

Marriage and Divorce Laws in Islam (Part-1): Commentary on the Quran (Chapter 2:221) By: Mohammad Sobhanie

Commentary on the Quran (Chapter 2:221)

By: Mohammad Sobhanie

Marriage and Divorce Laws in Islam (Part-1)

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

وَلَا تَنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنَّ ۚ وَلَأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ۗ وَلَا تُنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنُوا ۚ وَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ ۗ أُولَـٰئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ ۖ وَاللَّـهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ ۖ وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿٢٢١

2:221 And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe. And a believing slave woman is better than a polytheist (women), even though she might please you (with her beauty, wealth, status, or family). And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you. Those invite [you] to the Fire, but Allah (SWT) invites to Paradise and to forgiveness, by God’s permission. And God makes clear God’s verses to the people that perhaps they may remember.

Commentary: Verses 2:221 prohibits a Muslim man from marrying an idolatress until she accepts Islam:

وَلَا تَنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنَّ ۚ … ﴿٢٢١

2:219 And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe.

The verse then says:

… وَلَأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ۗ …﴿٢٢١

2:221 … And a believing slave woman is better than a polytheist (women), even though she pleases and attracts you (with her beauty, wealth, status, or family).

It is equally forbidden for a Muslim woman to marry an idolater until he embraces Islam. The verse emphasizes that a believing slave man is better than an idolater, though his wealth and social status might be appealing to the woman:

… وَلَا تُنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنُوا ۚ وَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ ۗ … ﴿٢٢١

2:221 And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you.

The reason for this divine decree is that polytheism invites towards the eternal Fire, whereas Allah (SWT) calls for divine forgiveness and eternal Paradise:

… أُولَـٰئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ ۖ وَاللَّـهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ … ﴿٢٢١

2:221 … Those invite [you] to the Fire, but Allah (SWT) invites to Paradise and forgiveness, by God’s permission.

Allah (SWT) make God’s verses clear to people so that they can be mindful of their choices in life:

…وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿٢٢١

2:221 …And Allah (SWT) makes clear God’s verses to the people that perhaps they may remember.

Meaning of Mushrikin in the Quran: The verb Ishrak (اشراک) means to ascribe a partner. The word Al-mushrikat (الْمُشْرِكَاتِ) is the feminine plural active participle (اسم الفاعل) of the verb Ishrāk (اشراک) and translates to polytheistic women. The word Al-mushrikeen (الْمُشْرِكِينَ) is the masculine form of the Al-mushrikat (الْمُشْرِكَاتِ).

A polytheist (الْمُشْرِكِ) in the Quran is someone who worships idols. What about Christians and Jews? Christians believe in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), and Jews believe that Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah (At-Tawba 9:30); these are examples of polytheism. Hence, Christians and Jews are polytheists in their beliefs. Nevertheless, the Quran calls them People of the Book (أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ) (Tafseer-e-Namonah, Vol.2, P. 134, Al-Mizan, Vol.2, P. 305). Though, they are disbelievers like idolaters (Al-Baqara 2:105), (Al-i-Imran 3:98).

Hence, a general view among jurists is that verse 2:221 forbids the marriage of a Muslim with a polytheist who practices idolatry. It is worthy of mentioning that Muslims, according to verse 12:106 (Yusuf), also might have traces of polytheism, whether by belief or practice. However, the Quran does not refer to them as polytheists:

وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُم بِاللَّـهِ إِلَّا وَهُم مُّشْرِكُونَ ﴿١٠٦

12:106 And most of them believe not in Allah (SWT) without associating (other as partner with Him.

Regarding marriage with People of the Book, verse 5:5 (Al-Ma’ida) permits only the marriage of a Muslim man with a chaste Christian or Jewish woman. A group of Shia jurists believe that the verse licenses only a term-limit marriage. The interested reader is referred to the Islamic books of jurisprudence (Tafseer-e-Nemoneh, Vol. 4, P. 282).

Word-for-Word Translation:

[وَلَا] And do not [تَنكِحُوا] you marry [الْمُشْرِكَاتِ] the polytheistic women [حَتَّىٰ] until [يُؤْمِنَّ] they believe [وَلَأَمَةٌ] and a slave woman [مُّؤْمِنَةٌ] who is believing [خَيْرٌ] is better [مِّن] than [مُّشْرِكَةٍ] a polytheistic free woman [وَلَوْ] and even if [أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ] she pleases you. [وَلَا] And do not [تُنكِحُوا] give in marriage your women [الْمُشْرِكِينَ] to the polytheistic men [حَتَّىٰ] until [يُؤْمِنُوا] they believe [وَلَعَبْدٌ] and a slave man [مُّؤْمِنٌ] who is believing [خَيْرٌ] is better [مِّن] than [مُّشْرِكٍ] a polytheistic man [وَلَوْ] and even if [أَعْجَبَكُمْ] he pleases you. [أُولَـٰئِكَ] those [يَدْعُونَ] they invite [إِلَى] to [النَّارِ] the Fire [وَاللَّـهُ] and Allah (SWT)  [يَدْعُو] invites [إِلَى] to [الْجَنَّةِ] Paradise [وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ] and the forgiveness [بِإِذْنِهِ] with God’s permission. [وَيُبَيِّنُ] And God makes clear [آيَاتِهِ] God’s verses [لِلنَّاسِ] for the people [لَعَلَّهُمْ] so that they may [يَتَذَكَّرُونَ] take heed.

Appendix

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّـهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّـهِ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۖ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن قَبْلُ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّـهُ ۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ ﴿٣٠

9:30 The Jews say, “Ezra is the son of Allah “; and the Christians say, “The Messiah is the son of Allah.” That is their statement from their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved [before them]. May Allah (SWT) destroy them; how are they deluded?

مَّا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلَا الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ ﴿١٠٥

2:105 Neither those who disbelieve from the People of the Scripture nor the polytheists wish that any good should be sent down to you from your Lord. But Allah (SWT) selects for God’s mercy whom God wills, and Allah (SWT) is the possessor of great bounty.

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّـهِ وَاللَّـهُ شَهِيدٌ عَلَىٰ مَا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٩٨

3:98 Say, “O People of the Scripture, why do you disbelieve in the verses of Allah (SWT) while God is Witness over what you do?”

who Polytheism is associating anyone or anything to Allah (SWT), or ascribing divinity

الْيَوْمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ۖ وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَّكُمْ وَطَعَامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ ۖ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ وَلَا مُتَّخِذِي أَخْدَانٍ ۗ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ ﴿٥

5:5 This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And [lawful in marriage are] chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture before you, when you have given them their due compensation, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse or taking [secret] lovers. And whoever denies the faith – his work has become worthless, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.

https://www.al-islam.org/study-polytheism-and-idolatry-quran-abbas-sayyid-karimi/chapter-9-types-polytheism

 

 

 

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