Date :Saturday, February 20th, 2021 | Time : 04:00 |ID: 199662 | Print

Commentary on the Quran (Chapter 2:250-252) – By: Mohammad Sobhanie

Commentary on the Quran (Chapter 2:250-252)

By: Mohammad Sobhanie

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٢٥٠﴾ فَهَزَمُوهُم بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ وَآتَاهُ اللَّـهُ الْمُلْكَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُ مِمَّا يَشَاءُ ۗ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّـهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّفَسَدَتِ الْأَرْضُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٢٥١﴾ تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّـهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿٢٥٢

2:250 And when they went forth to (face) Goliath and his soldiers, they said: “Our Lord, pour upon us patience and plant firmly our feet and give us victory over the disbelieving people.”

2:251 So they defeated them by permission of Allah (SWT), and David killed Goliath, and Allah (SWT) gave him the kingship and prophethood and taught him from that which God Willed. Had Allah (SWT) not repelled a group of people by ˹the might of˺ another, corruption would have dominated the earth, but Allah (SWT) is Gracious to the worlds

2:252 These are the verses of Allah (SWT) which God recite to you, (O Muhammad), in truth. And indeed, you are from among the messengers.

Commentary: When Talut and his forces faced Jalut (Goliath) and his mighty army, they prayed to the Lord for 1) Patience and perseverance, 2) Determination and firmness against the enemy so that they could withstand battle, and 3) victory over the disbelievers.

In verse 251, Barzu (بَرَزُوا) means to appear. Hence, the phrase (وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ) means when they (Talut and his army) appeared to Jalut and his troops, or when they faced Jalut and his troops.

Afrigh (أَفْرِغْ) means to pour. Hence, the phrase (رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا) means “Our Lord, pour down upon us patience.”

Wa-Thabbit Aqdamana (وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا), means to make firm our feet. It is an allegorical expression that signifies determination and steadiness in facing the enemy.

The Defeat of Jalut (Goliath): Verse 2:251 states Dawood, a young man in Talut’s army, killed Jalut (وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ), and as a result, Jalut and his army were defeated with Allah’s (SWT) permission (فَهَزَمُوهُم بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ).

A familiar narration is that Dawood aimed his slingshot at the Jalut’s forehead and pierced it with one or two pebbles. He became unconscious, fell from his horses to the ground in pain, and cried out for help. The Jalut’s bloody face terrified his soldiers and made them retreat from the scene and eventually flee the battlefield.

Afterward, Allah (SWT) bestowed the kingdom and wisdom upon Dawood and taught him what He wished to teach him (وَآتَاهُ اللَّـهُ الْمُلْكَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُ مِمَّا يَشَاءُ). Wisdom (الْحِكْمَةَ) may refer to the science and art of governance or building armour and weaponry to defend a kingdom. It also could refer to the position of the prophethood, referred to in chapter Sad (38:20):

وَشَدَدْنَا مُلْكَهُ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَفَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ ﴿٢٠

38:20 And We strengthened his (Dawood’s) kingdom and gave him wisdom and discernment in speech.

Verse 251 towards the end refers to a general law, “Had Allah (SWT) not repelled a group of people by ˹the might of˺ another, corruption would have dominated the earth, but Allah (SWT) is Gracious to all.”

… وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّـهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّفَسَدَتِ الْأَرْضُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٢٥١

2:251 … Had Allah (SWT) not repelled a group of people by ˹the might of˺ another, corruption would have dominated the earth, but Allah (SWT) is Gracious to all.

Governments rule and exercise their authority freely in this world, and any governing system is free to choose the path of good and evil. However, the predominance of evil can expose the world to corruption and massive destruction. In this instance, power changes hand, Allah (SWT) intervenes and respells the corrupt rulers with the might of others.

Verse 251 is a sort of epilogue to end the story, which is free from any superstitions and myths (نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ) and are indicative of the power and might of Allah (SWT) (تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّـهِ). He conveyed these verses to the Prophet (PBUH), which is one of his legitimacy signs.

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّـهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿٢٥٢

2:252 These are the verses of Allah (SWT) which God recite to you, (O Muhammad), in truth. And indeed, you are from among the messengers.

With permission of Allah (SWT) (بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ): Many verses of the Quran indicate that forces in the universe act with the “permission of Allah (SWT)”. What do we mean with the permission of God?

Allah (SWT) created all the forces in the nature and properties of materials, and they are under his dominance. For instance, a property of a sharp instrument is to cut. But God controls whether a sharp tool can cut. In some cases, He may not allow a sharp knife to cut.

Completion of the 2nd chapter

Sunday 9/6/2020 4:32 AM, 18 Muharram 1442

یکشنبه ۱۶ شهریور ۱۳۹۹

 

Word-for-Word Translation:

2:250 [وَلَمَّا] And when [بَرَزُوا] they went forth (appear) [لِجَالُوتَ] to Jalut [وَجُنُودِهِ] and his troops, [قَالُوا] they said [رَبَّنَا] Our Lord [أَفْرِغْ] pour [عَلَيْنَا] on us [صَبْرًا] patience [وَثَبِّتْ] and make firm [أَقْدَامَنَا] our steps [وَانصُرْنَا] and help us [عَلَى] over [الْقَوْمِ] the people [الْكَافِرِينَ] who are disbelieving.

2:251 [فَهَزَمُوهُم] so they defeated them [بِإِذْنِ] by the permission [اللَّـهِ] of Allah [وَقَتَلَ] and killed [دَاوُودُ] Dawood [جَالُوتَ] Jalut. [وَآتَاهُ] And gave him [اللَّـهُ] Allah [الْمُلْكَ] the kingdom [وَالْحِكْمَةَ] and the wisdom [وَعَلَّمَهُ] and taught him [مِمَّا] that which [يَشَاءُ] He willed. [وَلَوْلَا] And if not [دَفْعُ اللَّـهِ] for the repelling by Allah [النَّاسَ] the people [بَعْضَهُم] some of them [بِبَعْضٍ] with others [لَّفَسَدَتِ] certainly would have corrupted [الْأَرْضُ] the earth. [وَلَـٰكِنَّ] And but [اللَّـهَ] Allah [ذُو] is possessor [فَضْلٍ] of bounty [عَلَى] to [الْعَالَمِينَ] the worlds.

2:252 [تِلْكَ] These [آيَاتُ] are the verses [اللَّـهِ] of Allah [نَتْلُوهَا] we recited them [عَلَيْكَ] to you [بِالْحَقِّ] in the truth, [وَإِنَّكَ] And indeed you [لَمِنَ] are surely of [الْمُرْسَلِينَ] the Messengers.

 

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