SHAFAQNA- The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was sent to establish a community based on moral principles, and in doing so, he set out to perfect people’s ethics. All of the Prophet’s (PBUH) activities were undertaken for this very objective: the ethical and divine nurturing of human beings. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) himself a symbol of ethics, was naturally considered to be the ideal example of moral behavior. The Ayat of the Glorious Quran pertaining to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his mission are too numerous to list in an article.
Sometimes the Quran directly addresses the people and informs them about the Divine Mission of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):
“Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Apostle of Allah (SWT) and the Seal of the Prophets, and Allah (SWT) have knowledge of all things” (Quran 33:40)
“As We sent to you an Apostle from among yourselves, who recites to you Our signs, and purifies you, and teaches you the Book and wisdom, and teaches you what you did not know. Remember Me, and I will remember you, and thank Me, and do not be ungrateful to Me” (Quran 2:151-152)
“Say: If you love Allah (SWT), then follow me; Allah (SWT) will love you and forgive you your sins, and Allah (SWT) is all-forgiving, all-merciful. Say: Obey Allah (SWT) and the Apostle. But if they turn away, indeed Allah (SWT) does not like the disbelievers” (Quran 3:31-32)
The following Ayat contains the direct address of God to Muhammad (PBUH), and also indicates the requirement for obedience:
“We did not send any apostle but to be obeyed, by Allah’s (SWT) leave. Had they, when they wronged themselves, come to you [Muhammad (PBUH)] and pleaded to Allah (SWT) for forgiveness, and the Apostle had pleaded for forgiveness for them, they would have surely found Allah (SWT) All-Clement, All-Merciful.” (Quran 4:64)
Although the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) may pray for the forgiveness of others, he does not redeem anyone’s sins, and it is God who forgives. The guidance brought to humanity through the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is a divine light.
“O you who have faith! Be wary of Allah (SWT) and have faith in God’s Apostle. God will grant you a double share of Divine Mercy and give you a light to walk by, and forgive you, and Allah (SWT) is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful” (Quran 58:28)
“…O you who possess intellect and have faith! Allah (SWT) has certainly sent down to you a reminder, an apostle reciting to you the manifest signs of Allah (SWT) that He may bring out those who have faith and do righteous deeds from darkness into light… “ (Quran 65:10-11)
“O People of the Book! Certainly Our Apostle has come to you, clarifying for you much of what you used to hide of the Book, and passing over much. Certainly there has come to you a light from Allah (SWT) and a manifest Book. With it Allah (SWT) guides those who follow God’s pleasure to the ways of peace, and brings them out from darkness into light by God’s Will, and guides them to a straight path” (Quran 5:15-16)
“…[This is] a book We have sent down to you [Muhammad (PBUH)] that you may bring mankind out from darkness into light by the command of their Lord… ”. (Quran 14:1)
The humble background and humanity of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is also emphasized in the Quran:
“It is God who sent to the unlettered an apostle from among themselves, to recite to them God’s signs, to purify them, and to teach them the Book and wisdom, and earlier they had indeed been in manifest error”. (Quran 62:2)
In the following verse, which occurs in a longer section in which God is addressing Moses (A.S), the coming of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is predicted, his humble origins are mentioned, and he is said to be sent down with a light.
“…Soon I shall appoint it [My mercy] for those who are God-wary and give the zakat and those who believe in Our signs—those who follow the Apostle, the unlettered prophet, whose mention they find written with them in the Torah and the Gospel, who bids them to do what is right and forbids them from what is wrong, makes lawful to them all the good things and forbids them from all vicious things, and relieves them of their burdens and the shackles that were upon them—those who believe in him, honor him, and help him and follow the light that has been sent down with him, they are the felicitous”. (Quran 7:156-157)
In the next Ayah, the Prophet (PBUH) is commanded to announce his mission:
“Say: O’ people! I am the Apostle of Allah (SWT) to you all, [of God] to whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; there is no god but Allah (SWT); God gives life and brings death. So have faith in Allah (SWT) and God’s Apostle, the unlettered prophet, who has faith in Allah (SWT) and God’s words, and follow him so that you may be guided” (Quran 7:158)
Especially important for the Shia is the following ayah, in which the importance of love for the Ahlul-Bayt (A.S) is mentioned; in this and in various other verses it is also stated that the Prophet (PBUH) does not desire any material compensation from those he guides. The material wealth he collected was used for the needs of the community and likewise the love he requested from the believers for his kin was also for the benefit of the community.
“…Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it [bringing the divine good news] except the love of my family” (Quran 42:23)
Prophet Muhammad from the Shia Perspective, Muhammad Legenhausen
Moral governance the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Mohammad Nasr Isfahani