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Ghadir: Eternal Eid of Shia Muslims

Shafaqna English- “Atlas of Shia” is a book written by “Rasul Jafarian” in Persian, published in Tehran in 2008. This work, consisting of 743 pages and 12 chapters, aims to present a geographical and historical picture of Shia in the history of Islam from its inception to the first decade of the third millennium AD. “Atlas of Shia” has won the Book of the Year Award of the Islamic Republic of Iran and has been translated into Arabic as well. Shafaqna International News Cooperation has translated some sections of this book and provided them in English.

Ghadir, the Eternal Eid of Shia Muslims

Since the era when Shia began celebrating Eid, they have always held a special reverence for the eighteenth day of Dhl-Hijjah, known as the day of Ghadir. Narrations from the Imams have underscored its significance, and practical observances of Ghadir have always been esteemed.

Sheikh Mufid, in his works including “Al-Muqni’ah” (P. 203), provided ample explanation, acknowledging the tradition of performing two units of prayer and fasting on this day as a recommended practice.

Since power was consolidated in Baghdad in the fourth decade of the fourth Islamic century, the celebration of Ghadir became so prominent that all contemporary historical sources have documented it. Information on this can be found in Ibn Juzayy’s “Al-Muntazam” and Ibn Athir’s “Al-Kamil.”

Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, in his esteemed work “Al-Athar Al-Baqiyah,” writes: “The eighteenth of Dhul-Hijjah is the day known as Ghadir Khumm, the place where the Messenger of Allah (SWT) gathered everyone after returning from Hajjatul-Wida’. He took the hand of Imam Ali (AS) and said, ‘O’ people! Am I not more worthy of you than yourselves?’ They said, ‘Yes, O’ Messenger of Allah (SWT).’

He said: ‘Whoever I am his master, Ali is his master. O’ Allah, befriend whoever befriends him and oppose whoever opposes him, and support whoever supports him, and betray whoever betrays him, and keep the truth with him wherever he goes.” (Al-Athar Al-Baqiyah: 430) This narration, along with other evidence, underscores Al-Biruni’s Shia allegiance as a leading scholar in the Islamic world.

Khateeb Baghdadi, a prominent Sunni Scholar, also mentioned this narration in his renowned work “Tarikh Baghdad”:”Abdullah bin Ali bin Muhammad bin Bashir narrated to us from Ali bin Umar Hafiz from Zimrah bin Rubai’ah Quraishi from Matar Wariq from Shahar bin Hashab from Abu Huraira who said: ‘Whoever fasts on the eighteenth of Dhul-Hijjah, Allah will write for him the reward of sixty fasts.’ It is the day of Ghadir Khumm where the Messenger of Allah (SWT) took the hand of Ali (AS) and said: ‘Am I not more worthy of you than yourselves?’ They said, ‘Yes, O’ Messenger of Allah (SWT).’

He said: ‘Whoever I am his master, Ali is his master.’ At that time, Umar bin Khattab said: ‘Congratulations! Congratulations to you, O’ son of Abu Talib! You have become the master of every believing man and woman. Today, I have perfected your religion for you.'” (Tarikh Baghdad: 2848)

In some historical periods, Shia communities celebrated Ghadir by gathering in plains and deserts, renewing bonds of brotherhood to honor the covenant between the Prophet (PBUH) and Imam Ali (AS).

Part of the Book Atlas of Shia by Rasul Jafarian

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