Date :Monday, March 16th, 2015 | Time : 21:54 |ID: 8205 | Print

Treatise on Rights


Among the most important works in the world of Islam is the ‘Treatise on Rights’ – Risalat al Huquq – by our forth Imam, Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin, peace be on him.

In it the Imam has mentioned all the methods necessary for man’s conduct, developing his life, and building his civilization on foundations which lead to tranquillity and protection from anxiety, disorder, and the like.

The wise Imam carefully and inclusively considered man, studied all the dimensions of his life, his relationships with his Creator, his soul, his family, his society, his government, his teacher, and so on. He wrote for man these rights and duties and made it incumbent on him to conform to them.

Hence man is able to establish an Islamic society which believes in social justice and has strong ties such as mutual confidence, love, and other means necessary for social development and progress.



Then the greatest right of God incumbent upon you is that you worship Him without associating anything with Him. When you do that with sincerity, He has made it binding upon Himself to give you sufficiency in the affairs of this world and the next and to keep for you whatever of them that you like.

حقوق الله

1 . حق الله الأكبر

فأَمَّا حَقُّ اللهِ الأَكْبَرُ فَإنَّكَ تَعْبُدُهُ لا تُشْرِكُ بهِ شَيْئاً، فَإذَا فَعَلْتَ ذَلِكَ بإخلاصٍ جَعَلَ لَكَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَنْ يَكفِيَكَ أَمْرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَيَحْفَظَ لَكَ مَا تُحِبُّ مِنْهَما.


And the right of yourself incumbent upon you is that you employ it in obeying God; then you deliver to your tongue its right, to your hearing its right, to your sight its right, to your hand its right, to your leg its right, to your stomach its right, to your private part its right, and you seek help from God in all that.

2 حق النفس

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ نَفْسِكَ عَلَيْكَ فَأَنْ تَسْتَوْفِيَهَا فِي طَاعَةِ اللهِ فَتُؤَدّي إلَى لِسَانِكَ حَقَّهُ وَإلَى سَمْعِك حَقَّهُ وَإلَى بَصَرِكَ حَقّهُ وَإلَى يَدِكَ حَقَّهَا وَإلَى رِجْلِك حَقَّهَا وَإلَى بَطْنِكَ حَقَّهُ وَإلَى فَرْجِكَ حَقَّهُ وَتَسْتَعِينَ باللهِ عَلَى ذَلِك.


And the right of the tongue is that you consider it too noble for obscenity, accustom it to good, direct it to politeness, do not use it except in situations of needs and benefits of the religion and this world, and refrain from any meddling in which there is little to be gained, and there is no security from its harm that accompanies its small benefits. It is the witness to and the evidence of the existence of the intellect. The demonstration of an intelligent person’s intellect is through his reputation of good speech. And there is no power but in God the High, the Great.

3 حق اللسان

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ اللّسَان فَإكْرَامُهُ عَنِ الْخَنَى وتَعْوِيدُهُ عَلَى الْخَيْرِ وَحَمْلُهُ عَلَى الأَدَب وَإجْمَامُهُ إلاّ لِمَوْضِعِ الْحَاجَةِ وَالْمَنْفَعَةِ لِلدِّينِ وَالدُّنْيَا وَإعْفَاؤُهُ عَنِ الْفُضُول اُلشَّنِعَةِ الْقَلِيلَةِ الْفَائِدَةِ الَّتِي لا يُؤْمَنُ ضَرَرُهَا مَعَ قِلَّةِ عَائِدَتِهَا. وَيُعَدُّ شَاهِدَ الْعَقْلِ وَالدَّلِيلَ عَلَيْه وَتَزَيُّنُ الْعَاقِلَ بعَقْلِهِ حُسْنُ سِيرَتِهِ فِي لِسَانِهِ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ.


And the right of hearing is to keep it pure by not making it the direct pathway to your heart, except for noble words that establish some good in your heart or grant you a noble trait. Indeed hearing is the gateway through which various concepts reach the heart -whether good or evil. And there is no power but in God.

4 حق السمع

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ السَّمْعِ فَتَنْزِيهُهُ عَنْ أَنْ تَجْعَلَهُ طَرِيقًا إلَى قَلْبكَ إلا لِفُوهَةٍ كَرِيمَةٍ تُحْدِثُ فِي قَلبكَ خَيْرًا أَو تَكْسِبُ خُلُقًا كَرِيمًا فَإنَّهُ بَابُ الْكَلامِ إلَى الْقَلْب يُؤَدِّي إلَيْهِ ضُرُوبُ الْمَعَانِي عَلَى مَا فِيهَا مِن خَيْرٍ أَو شَرِّ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your sight is that you lower it before everything, which is unlawful to you. And that you abandon using it, except in situations in which you can take heed in such a way that you gain insight or acquire knowledge by it. Indeed sight is the gateway to learnin

5 حق البصر

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ بَصَرِكَ فَغَضُّهُ عَمَّا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وتَرْكُ ابْتِذَالِهِ إلاّ لِمَوضِعِ عِبْرَةٍ تَسْتَقْبلُ بهَا بَصَرًا أَو تَسْتَفِيدُ بهَا عِلْمًا، فَإنَّ الْبَصَرَ بَابُ الِاعْتِبَارِ .


And the right of your legs is that you walk not with them toward that which is unlawful to you. And you should not direct them in the way that will lead the person they carry to being debased. Your legs will carry you in the direction of the religion and they will help you go ahead. And there is no power but in God.

6 حق الرجلين

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ رِجْلَيْكَ فَأَنْ لا تَمْشِي بهِمَا إلَى مَا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وَلا تَجْعَلْهُمَا مَطِيَّتَكَ فِي الطَّرِيقِ الْمُسْتَخِفَّةِ بأَهْلِهَا فِيهَا فَإنَّهَا حَامِلَتُكَ وَسَالِكَةٌ بكَ مَسْلَكَ الدِّينِ وَالسَّبْقُ لَكَ، وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا بالله .


And the right of your hand is that you stretch it not toward that which is unlawful to you. Should you do so, you will be chastised by God in the future. And you are not secure from the blameful tongue of the people now, either. Do not prevent your hands from performing what God has made obligatory for them. You should honor your hands in such a way as to prevent them from engaging in many of the deeds that are not allowed for them. You should let them engage in many deeds that are not harmful for them. If they are now used by the intellect and with honor now, then they are bound to receive a good reward inthe future.

7 حق اليد

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ يَدِكَ فَأَنْ لا تَبْسُطَهَا إلَى مَا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ فَتَنَالَ بمَا تَبْسُطُهَا إلَيْهِ مِنَ اللهِ الْعُقُوبَةَ فِي الآجِلِ، وَمِنَ النَّاسِ بلِسَانِ اللائِمَةِ فِي الْعَـاجِلِ، وَلا تَقْبضَهَا مِمَّا افْتَرَضَ اللهُ عَلَيْهَا وَلَكِنْ تُوقّرَِهَا بقَبْضِهَا عَنْ كَثِيرٍ مِمَّا يَحِلُّ لَهَا وبَسْطِهَا إلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّا لَيسَ عَلَيْهَا، فَإذَا هِيَ قَدْ عُقِلَتْ وَشُرِّفَتْ فِي الْعَاجِلِ وَجَبَ لَهَا حُسْنُ الثَّوَاب فِي الآجِلِ.


And the right of your stomach is that you make it not into a container for a little of that which is unlawful to you or a lot of it. You should be determined to eat what is lawful and not exceed the bounds of strengthening to the extent of belittling your stomach to the point that you loose your manliness. And you should restrain it whenever you are extremely hungry or thirsty, since getting really full will cause indigestion, sluggishness, indolence, and it will hinder you from nobility and any good deeds. And drinking too much will make you feel drunk, light-headed, ignorant, and take away your manliness.

8 حق البطن

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ بَطْنِكَ فَأَنْ لا تَجْعَلَهُ وِعَاءً لِقَلِيلٍ مِنَ الْحَرَامِ وَلا لِكَثِيرٍ، وَأَنْ تَقْتَصِدَ لَهُ فِي الْحَلالِ وَلا تُخرِجَهُ مِنْ حَدِّ التَّقْوِيَةِ إلَى حَدِّ التَّهْوِينِ وَذَهَاب الْمُرُوَّةِ، وَضَبْطُهُ إذَا هَمَّ بالْجُوعِ والظمأ فَإنَّ الشَّبْعَ الْمُنْتَهِي بصَاحِبهِ إلَى التُّخمِ مَكْسَلَةٌ وَمَثْبَطَةٌ وَمَقْطَعَةٌ عَنْ كُلِّ برِّ وَكَرَمٍ. وَإنَّ الري الْمُنْتَهِي بصَاحِبهِ إلَى السُّكْرِ مَسْخَفَةٌ وَمَجْهَلَةٌ وَمَذْهَبَةٌ لِلْمُرُوَّةِ.


And the right of your private part is that you should protect it from everything that is unlawful for you and help it by lowering your eyes- this is certainly the best way to help it. And you should also remember death often, And threaten yourself with God and try to make yourself fear God.
Maintaining one’s decency and receiving help in so doing are possible by God’s help. There is no strength or power but in Him.

9 حق الفرج

وَأَمَّا حَـقُّ فَرْجِكَ فَحِفْظُهُ مِمَّا لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ وَالاسْتِعَانَةُ عَلَيْهِ بغَضِّ الْبَصَرِ – فَإنَّهُ مِنْ أَعْوَنِ الأَعْوَانِ- وَكَثْرَةُ ذِكْرِ الْمَوتِ وَالتَّهَدُّدِ لِنَفْسِكَ باللهِ وَالتَّخوِيفِ لَهَا بهِ، وَباللهِ الْعِصْمَةُ وَالتَّأْيِيدُ وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا بهِ.



Then the right of your ritual prayer is that you should know that it is an arrival at the threshold of God and that through it you are standing before God. And when you realize that, then you will stand in the station of him who is lowly, vile, beseeching, trembling, hopeful, fearful, and abased, and you will magnify Him who is before you through stillness, and bowing of the head, and humbleness of the limbs, and yielding of the wing, and by saying the best supplications to him by yourself and beseeching Him to save you from the responsibilities which rest on your shoulders-surrounded by your faults and exhausted by your sins. And there is no power but in God.

ثم حقوق الأفعال

10 حق الصلاة

فَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّلاةِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنّهَا وِفَادَةٌ إلَى اللهِ وَأَنَّكَ قَائِمٌ بهَا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللهِ، فَإذَا عَلِمْتَ ذَلِكَ كُنْتَ خَلِيقًا أَنْ تَقُومَ فِيهَا مَقَامَ الذَّلِيلِ الرَّاغِب الرَّاهِب الْخَائِفِ الرَّاجِي الْمِسْكِينِ الْمُتَضَرِّعِ الْمُعَظِّمِ مَنْ قَامَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ بالسُّكُونِ وَالإطْرَاقِ وَخُشُوعِ الأَطْرَافِ وَلِينِ الْجَنَاحَ وَحُسْنِ الْمُنَاجَاةِ لَهُ فِي نَفْسِهِ وَالطَّلَب إلَيْهِ فِي فَكَاكِ رَقَبَتِكَ الَّتِي أَحَاطَتْ بهِ خَطِيئَتُكَ وَاسْتَهلَكَتْهَا ذُنُوبُكَ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of fasting is that You should know it is a veil, which God has set up over your tongue, your hearing and your sight, your private parts and your stomach, to protect you from the Fire. This meaning is asserted in the tradition: “Fasting is an armor against the Fire.” Thus if your parts can calm down within the veil of fasting, you have hopes of being protected. But if you leave them agitated behind the veil and let them lift the sides of the veil, then they will look at things that are not lawful for them to look at -that incite lust and powers that are beyond the limits of being God-fearing. It is not safe for you to break through the veil and leave it. And there is no power but in God.

11 حق الصوم

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّوْمِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّهُ حِجَابٌ ضَرَبَهُ اللهُ عَلَى لِسَانِكَ وَسَمْعِكَ وبَصَرِكَ وَفَرْجِكَ وبَطْنِكَ لِيَسْتر’َكَ بهِ مِن النَّارِ وَهَكَذَا جَاءَ فِي الْحَديثِ “الصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ مِنَ النَّارِ” فَإنْ سَكَنَتْ أَطْرَافُـكَ فِي حَجَبَتِهَا رَجَوْتَ أَنْ تَكُونَ مَحْجُوبًا. وَإنْ أَنْتَ تَرَكْتَهَا تَضْطَرِبُ فِي حِجَابهَا وتَرْفَعُ جَنَبَاتِ الْحِجَاب فَتُطّلِعُ إلَى مَا لَيْسَ لَهَا بالنَّظْرَةِ الدَّاعِيـَةِ لِلشَّهْوَةِ وَالقُوَّةِ الْخَارِجَةِ عَنْ حَدِّ التَّقِيَّةِ للهِ لَمْ تَأمَنْ أَنْ تَخرِقَ الْحِجَابَ وَتَخرُجَ مِنْهُ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of pilgrimage is that you should know that it is an arrival at the threshold of your Lord and a flight to Him from your sins; and through it your repentance is accepted and you perform an obligation made incumbent upon you by God.

12 حق الحج

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الحَجّ أَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنّه وِفادةٌ إلى رَبّكَ، و فِرارٌ إليه من ذُنوبكَ وفيهِ قبولُ تَوبتِكَ وقَضاءُ الفَرضِ الَّذي أوجَبَه الله عَليك.


And the right of charity is that you should know that it is a storing away with your Lord and a deposit for which you will have no need for witnesses. Then once you know this you will be more confident of it if you donate it in secret than if you donate it in public. It is more appropriate for you to do privately what you now do in public and keep the affairs between you and Him secret under all circumstances. And you should also not take your hearing and sight as witnesses for the donations that you make in charity as if you have the most trust yourself.

It should not be as if you are not sure that your donations will be returned to you. Finally you should not remind others of your favors since you have done so for yourself. If you remind them of your favors, you will not be immune from being similarly reminded of others’ favors to you. Moreover this will prove that your intentions were not pure. If you had pure intentions you would not remind anyone of it. And there is no power but in God.

13 حق الصدقة

وَأَمَّا حَقُّ الصَّدَقَةِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنَّها ذُخرُكَ عِنْدَ رَبكَ وَوَديعَتُكَ الَّتِي لا تَحْتَاجُ إلَى الإشْهَادِ، فَإذا عَلِمْتَ ذَلِك كُنْتَ بمَا اسْتَودَعْتَهُ سِرًّا أَوْثقَ بمَا اسْتَوْدَعْتَهُ عَلانِيَةً، وَكُنْتَ جَدِيرًا أَنْ تَكونَ أَسْرَرْتَ إلَيْهِ أَمْرًا أَعْلَنْتَهُ، وَكَانَ الأَمْرُ بَيْنَكَ وبَيْنَهُ فِيهَا سِرًّا عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ

وَلَمْ تَسْتَظْهِرْ عَلَيْهِ فِيمَا اسْتَوْدَعْتَهُ مِنْهَا بإشْهَادِ الأَسْمَاعِ وَالأَبْصَارِ عَلَيْهِ بهَا كَأنَّهَا أَوْثقُ فِي نَفْسِكَ لا كَأنَّكَ لا تثِقُ بهِ فِي تَأْديَةِ وَديعَتِكَ إلَيْكَ، ثُمَّ لَمْ تَمْتَنَّ بهَا عَلَى أَحَدٍ لأَنّهَا لَكَ فَإذا امْتَنَنْتَ بهَا لَمْ تَأْمَنْ أَنْ تَكُونَ بهَا مِثْلَ تَهْـجِين حَالِكَ مِنْهَا إلَى مَنْ مَنَنْتَ بهَا عَلَيْهِ لأَنَّ فِي ذلِكَ دَلِيلاً عَلَى أَنّكَ لَمْ تُرِدْ نفْسَكَ بهَـا، وَلَوْ أَرَدْتَ نفْسَكَ بهَا لَمْ تَمْتَنَّ بهَا عَلَى أَحَدٍ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of the offering is that through it you purify your will toward your Lord, and expose yourself to His Mercy, and His approval and not the eyes of the observers lower than Him. If this is so, you will neither be hypocritical nor extravagant. You will only intend the offering for God’s sake, and know that God wishes your ease, and does not wish your hardship. He also wishes His creatures to take it easy, and does not wish them to suffer hardships. Likewise, modesty is better than arrogance, for there lies extravagance and falsehood in the arrogant, while there are no formalities or falsehoods in the humble and the servile, since they are creatures and they exist in nature. There is no power but in God.

14 حق الهدي

وَأمَّا حَقُّ الهَدْيِ فَأَنْ تُخلِصَ بهَا الإرَادَةَ إلَى رَبكَ وَالتَّعَرُّضَ لِرَحْمَتِهِ وَقَبُولِهِ ولا تُرِيدَ عُيُونَ النَّاظِرِينَ دُونهُ، فـَإذَا كُنْتَ كَذَلِكَ لَمْ تَكُنْ مُتَكَلِّفًا ولا مُتَصَنِّعًا وَكُنْتَ إنَّمَا تَقْصِدُ إلَى الله. وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الله يُرَادُ بالْيَسِيرِ وَلا يُرَادُ بالْعَسِيرِ كَمَا أَرَادَ بخَلْقِهِ التَّيْسِيرَ وَلَمْ يُرِدْ بهِمُ التَّعْسِيرَ، وَكَذَلِكَ التَّذَلُّلَ أَوْلَى بكَ مِن التَّدَهْقُنِ لأَنَّ الْكُلْفَةَ وَالْمَئونَةَ فِي الْمُتَدَهْقِنِينَ. فَأمَّا التَّذَلُّلُ وَالتَّمَسْكُنُ فَلا كُلْفَةَ فِيهِمَا وَلا مَئونةَ عَلَيْهِمَا لأَنَّهُمَا الْخِلْقَةَ وهُمَا مَوجُودَانِ فِي الطَّبيعَةِ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.



Then the right of the possessor of authority is that you should know that God has established you as a trial for him. God is testing him through the authority God has given him over you. And you should sincerely provide him with your advice. And you should not quarrel with him while he has full dominance over you, for thereby you cause your own destruction and his, too. And you should be humble and courteous for his gifts to attain his satisfaction with you, so that he will not harm your religion. And you should seek God’s help in this regard. Do not oppose his power and do not resist him. Should you do so, you would have disobeyed him and disobeyed yourself:

thus exposing yourself to encounter his evil and expose him to destruction by you. Thus you will deserve to be considered to be as his assistant acting against yourself and as his partner in what he does to you. And there is no power but in God.

ثم حقوق الأئمَّة

15 حق سائسك بالسلطان

فأَمَّا حَقُّ سَائِسِكَ بالسُّلْطَانِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنّكَ جُعِلْتَ لَهُ فِتنَة وأنَّهُ مُبْتَلىً فِيكَ بمَا جَعَلَهُ اللهُ لَهُ عَلَيْكَ مِنَ السُّلْطَانِ وَأَنْ تُخلِصَ لَهُ فِي النَّصِيحَةِ وَأَنْ لا تُمَاحِكَهُ(6) وَقَدْ بُسِطْتَ يَدُهُ عَلَيْكَ فَتَكُونَ سَبَبَ هَلاكِ نفْسِكَ وَهلاكِهِ. وتَذَلَّلْ وتَلَطَّفْ لإِعْطَائِهِ مِنَ الرِّضَا مَا يَكُفُّهُ عَنْكَ وَلا يَضُرُّ بدينِكَ وتَسْتَعِينُ عَلَيْهِ فِي ذلِكَ باللهِ. ولا تُعَازَّهُ ولا تُعَانِدَهُ فَإنَّكَ إنْ فَعَلْتَ ذلِكَ عَقَقْتَهُ وَعَقَقْتَ نَفْسَكَ فَعَرَضْتَهَا لِمَكرُوهِهِ

لِلْهَلَكَةِ فِيكَ وَكُنْتَ خَلِيقًا أَنْ تَكُونَ مُعِينًا لَهُ عَلَى نفْسِكَ وَشَرِيكًا لَهُ فِيمَا أَتى إلَيْكَ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا بالله


And the right of the one who trains you through knowledge is glorifying him, and respecting his meetings, and listening well to him, and being responsive to him, and helping him for yourself in the knowledge that you need by freeing your mind for him, and presenting your understanding to him, and purifying your heart for him, and fixing your eyes on him by means of abandoning leisures and diminishing lust. And you should know that regarding what he teaches you, you are considered as his messenger to teach when you meet the ignorant ones. Therefore, it is binding upon you to render on his behalf properly, and not cheat in the fulfillment of his mission, and strive to deliver what you undertake. And there is no power but in God.

16 حق سائسك بالعلم

وأَمَّا حَقُّ سَائِسِكَ بالعِلْــــــــمِ فالتَّعْظِيمُ لَهُ والتَّوْقِيرُ لِمَجْلِسِهِ وَحُسْــــنُ الاسْـــــــــــــتِمَاعِ إليهِ وَالإقْبَــــــالُ عَلَيْه(9)ِ وَالْمَعُونةُ لَهُ عَلَى نفْسِكَ فِيمَــــا لا غِنَى بكَ عَنْهُ مِنْ الْعِلْمِ بأَنْ تُفَرِّغَ لَهُ عَقلَكَ وَتُحْضِرَهُ فَهْمَــــــــــــــكَ وتُزَكِّي لَهُ قَلْبَكَ وتُجَلِّى لَهُ بَصَرَكَ بتَرْكِ اللّذَّاتِ وَنقْص الشّهَوَاتِ، وَأَنْ تَعْلَــــــــــمَ أَنَّكَ فِيمَا أَلقَى إلَيْكَ رَسُولُهُ إلَى مَنْ لَقِيَكَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَهْلِ فَلَزِمَكَ حُسْنُ التَّأْدِيَةِ عَنْهُ إلَيْهِمْ، ولا تَخُنْهُ فِي تَأْدِيَةِ رِسَـــــــــــــــالَتِهِ وَالْقِيَامِ بهَا عَنْهُ إذا تَقَلَّدْتَهَا. وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him who trains you through ownership is similar to the right of the possessor of authority over you. Except this one has a right which that one does not: being that you are bound to obey him in every matter, whether small or big, except for what would lead you to abandon incumbent rights of God, or in what would intervene between you, his rights and the rights of the people. And once you fulfill them, you can commit yourself to his rights and engage in fulfilling them. And there is no power but in God.

17 حق السائس بالملك

وأمَّا حَقُّ سَائِسِكَ بالمِلْكِ فَنَحْوٌ مِنْ سَائِسِكَ بالسُّلْطَانِ إلاّ أَنَّ هذَا يَمْلِكُ مَـــــــــــــــا لا يَمْلِكُهُ ذاكَ، تَلْزِمُكَ طَاعَتُهُ فِيمَــــــــــا دَقَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْكَ إلاّ أَنْ تُخرِجَكَ مِنْ وُجُـــــــــوب حَقِّ الله، ويَحُولَ بَينَكَ وبَيْنَ حَقِّهِ وَحُقُوقِ الخَلْقِ، فَــــــإذَا قَضَيْتَهُ رَجَــــــــــــــــــعْتَ إلَى حَقِّهِ فَتَشَاغَلْتَ بهِ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلاّ باللهِ.



Then the right of your subjects through authority is that you should know that you have authority over them due to your power over them, and that they have been made your subjects through their weakness and humility. What do they deserve whose weakness and humility made them your subjects, and made your authority over them effective. They do not disobey you by their own might and power.
They cannot find a supporter against your power except [by God], by His Mercy and Protection, and patience. How proper it is for you to recognize that God has granted you this increased might and power with which you have subdued others. You should be thankful to God. And God will increase His Graces to those who thank Him. And there is no power but in God.

ثم حقوق الرعية

18. حق الرعية بالسلطان

فأَمَّا حُقُوقُ رَعِيَّتِكَ بالسُّلْطَانِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّكَ إنَّمَا اسْتَرْعَيْتَهُمْ بفَضْلِ قُوَّتِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَإنَّهُ إنَّمَا أَحَلَّهُـــــــــــمْ مَحَلَّ الرَّعِيَّةِ لَكَ ضَعْفُهُمْ وَذُلُّهُمْ، فَمَــــا أَوْلَى مَنْ كَفَاكَهُ ضَعْفُهُ وَذُلُّهُ حَتَّى صَيَّرَهُ لَكَ رَعِيَّةً وَصَيَّرَ حُكْمَكَ عَلَيْهِ نَافِذاً، لا يَمْتَنِعُ مِنْـــــــــــــــــكَ بعِزَّةٍ وَلا قُوَّةٍ وَلا يَسْتَنْصِرُ فِيمَا تَعَاظَمَــــــهُ مِنْكَ إلا [باللهِ] بالرَّحْمَةِ وَالْحِيَاطَةِ وَالأَناةِ وَمَـــــــــا أَولاكَ إذَا عَرَفْتَ مَا أَعْطَــــــــــاكَ الله مِنْ فَضْلِ هذِهِ الْعِزَّةِ وَالقُوَّةِ الَّتِي قَهَرْتَ بهَـــــــــــا أَنْ تَكُونَ لِلّهِ شَاكِراً، وَمَـــــنْ شَكَرَ الله أَعْطَاهُ فِيمَا أَنعَمَ عَلَيْهِ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your subjects through knowledge is that you should know that God established you over them through what He has granted you of knowledge and what He has granted authority over His treasures of wisdom. If you do wellin what God has given you authority over and treat them the same as the treatment of the treasurer, a sympathetic counselor who respects his master in the affairs of the slaves, the steadfast good-doer who, when he sees one who is needy, takes some of the property that he has control over to give away. Then you will be matured. And will be hopeful and faithful. Otherwise you will be regarded as betraying Him, and unjust to His creatures, and exposing yourself to God’s seizing His Graces and Power from you.

19 حق الرعية

بالعلموأمَّا حَقُّ رَعِيَّتِكَ بالعِلْمِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَــمَ أَنَّ اللهَ قَدْ جَعَلَكَ لَهُمْ  فِيمَـــــــا آتاكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ وَولاّكَ مِنْ خَزَانةِ الْحِكْمَةِ، فَــــــــــإنْ أَحْسَنْتَ فِيمَــــــا ولاّكَ اللهُ مِنْ ذلِكَ وَقُمْتَ بهِ لَهُمْ مَقَامَ الخَـــــازِنِ الشَّفِيقِ النَّـــــــاصِحِ لِمَـــولاهُ فِي عَبيدِهِ، الصَّــــــابرِ الْمُحْتَسِب الَّذِي إذَا رأَى ذا حَـــــاجَةٍ أَخرَجَ لَهُ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ الَّتِي فِي يَدَيهِ كُنْتَ رَاشِدًا، وَكُنْتَ لـــــــــــــِذَلِكَ آمِلاً مُعْتَقِدًا وَإلاّ كُنْتَ لَهُ خَائِنًا وَلِخَلقِهِ ظَالِمًا وَلِسَلْبهِ وَعِزِّهِ مُتَعَرِّضًا.


And the right of your subject through matrimonial contract is that you should know that God has made her repose, a comfort and a companion, and a maintainer for you. It is incumbent upon each of you to thank God for the other and realize that the other one is God’s blessing for you. It is obligatory to be a good companion for God’s Blessing, and to honor her and treat her gently. Yet, your right over her is more incumbent and she must obey you in every matter that you like or detest- except in acts of disobedience to God. She should enjoy the rights of mercy and intimacy, as she is an object of tranquility. You should care for her through consummation of the lust that must be consummated. And that is surely great. And there is no power but in God.

20 حق الزوجة

وَأمَّــــــــــــــا حَقُّ رَعِيَّتِكَ بمِلْكِ النّكَاحِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ جَـعَـلَـهَـا سَكَنًا وَمُسْتَرَاحًا وَأُنْسًـــــــــا وَوَاقِيةً، وَكَذَلِكَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْكُمَا يَجِبُ أَنْ يَحْمَدَ اللَّهَ عَلَى صَاحِبهِ، ويَعْلَـــــــــــــمَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ نِعْمَةٌ مِنْهُ عَلَيْهِ. وَوَجَبَ أَنْ يُحْسِــــــــــنَ صُحْبَةَ نِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ وَيُكْرِمَهَا ويَرْفَقَ بهَا وَإنْ كَانَ حَقُّكَ عَلَيْهَا أَغْلَظَ(18) وَطَاعَتِكَ بهَا أَلْزَمَ فِيمَا أَحْببْتَ وَكَرِهْتَ مَا لَمْ تَكنْ مَعْصِيةً، فإنَّ لَهَا حَقُّ الرَّحــــــــْمَةُ وَالْمُؤَانَسَةِ، وَمَوْضِعُ السُّكُونِ إلَيهَا قَضَاءَ اللَّذَّةِ الَّتِي لا بُدَّ مِنْ قَضَائِهَــــــــا وَذَلِكَ عَظِيـــــمٌ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your subject through being your slave is that you should know that he is a creature of your Lord and is made of the same flesh and blood. And you only own him, but you are much too inferior to God and you have not created him. And you have not created his hearing and sight, nor do you provide his daily sustenance; rather it is God who gives you sufficiency for that. Then He subjugated him to you, entrusted him to you, and provisionally consigned him with you. So protect him there, and treat him well just as well as he has treated you, and feed him with what you eat yourself, and clothe him with what you clothe yourself. And do not burden him with what he cannot withstand. And if you dislike him, you ought to let him go and replace him, but do not torment God’s creature. And there is no power but in God.

21 حق الرعية بملك اليمين

وَأمَّا حَقُّ رَعِيَّتِكَ بمِلْكِ اليَمِينِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنَهُ خَلْقُ رَبكَ، وَلَحْمُــــكَ وَدَمُــــكَ وَأَنَّـــــــــــكَ تَمْلِكُهُ لا أنْتَ صَنَعْتَهُ دُونَ اللَّهِ وَلا خَلَقْتَ لَهُ سَمْعًـــــا وَلا بَصَرًا وَلا أَجْرَيتَ لَهُ رِزْقًا وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ كَفَاكَ ذَلِكَ، ثُمَّ سَخَّرَهُ لَكَ وَائْتَمَنَكَ عَلَيْهِ وَاسْتَوْدَعَكَ إيَّـــــاهُ لِتَحْفَظَهُ فِيهِ وتَسِيرَ فِيهِ بسِيرَتِهِ فَتُطْعِمَهُ مِمَّا تَأْكُلُ وَتُلْبسَهُ مِمَّا تَلْبَسُ وَلا تُكَلِّفَهُ مَـــــــــا لا يُطِيقُ، فَإنْ كَرِهْتَ[هُ] خَرَجْتَ إلَى اللَّهِ مِنْهُ وَاسْتَبْدَلْتَ بهِ وَلَـمْ تُعَذِّبْ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.



Then the right of your mother is that you should know that she carried you where no one carries anyone, and she fed you with the fruit of her heart -that which no one feeds anyone, and she protected you with her hearing and sight, and her hands and legs, and her hair and skin and all her other organs. She was highly delighted to do so. She was happy and eager, enduring the harm and the pains, and the heaviness and the grief until the Mighty Hand expelled you out of her and delivered you out to the earth.

She did not care if she went hungry as long as you ate, and if she was naked as long as you were clothed, and if she was thirsty as long as you drank, and if she was in the sun as long as you were in the shade, and if she was miserable as long as you were happy, and if she was deprived of sleeping as long as you were resting. And her abdomen was your abode, and her lap was your seat, and her breast was your supply of drink, and her soul was your fort.

She protected you from the heat and the cold of this world. Then you should thank her for all that. You will not be able to show her gratitude unless through God’s help and His granting you success.

حقوقّ الرّحم

22 حق الأم

فَحَقُّ أُمِّكَ، فَـــــــــأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّهَا حَمَلَتكَ حَيْثُ لا يَحْمِلُ أَحَدٌ أَحَدًا وَأَطْعَمَتكَ مِنْ ثَمَرَةِ قَلْبها مَا لا يُطْعِمُ أَحَدٌ أَحَدًا، وَأَنَّهَا وَقَتكَ بسَمْعِهَـــــــا وبَصَرِهَــــــا ويَدِهَــــا وَرِجْلهـــــا وَشَعْرِهَا وبَشَرِهَا وَجَمِيعِ جَوَارِحِهَـــــا مُسْتَبشِرَةً بذَلِكَ، فَرِحَـــــــــــةً مُوَابلَةً، مُحْتَمِلَةً لِمَـــــــــا فِيهِ مَكْرُوهُهــا وأَلَمُهـــا وثِقْلُهـــا وَغَمُّهَا حَتَّى دَفَعَتهَا عَنْكَ يَدُ الـــــــــــــقُدْرَةِ وَأَخرَجَتكَ إلَى الأَرضِ فَرَضِيَتْ أَنْ تَشْبَــــــعَ وتجــــــــــــُوعُ هِيَ، وَتَكْسُوكَ وَتعْرَى، وَتُرْوِيكَ وَتَظْمَـــــــــأُ،

وَتُظِلُّكَ وتَضْحَى، وَتُنَعِّمَـــــــكَ ببُؤْسِهَـــــــــــــــا، وَتُلَذِّذُكَ بالنَّوْمِ بأَرَقِهَا، وَكَانَ بَطْنُهَــــــا لَكَ وِعَاءً، وَحِجْرُهَـــا لَكَ حِوَاءً، وثَدْيُهَا لَكَ سِقَاءً، ونَفْسُهَـــا لَكَ وِقَــــــــــــاءً، تُبَاشِرُ حَرَّ الدُّنيَا وبَرْدِهَـــــــــــــــــــا لَكَ وَدُونَكَ، فَتَشْكُرَهَا عَلَى قَدْرِ ذَلِكَ وَلا تَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ إلاّ بعَونِ اللَّهِ وَتَوفِيقِهِ.


And the right of your father is that you should know that he is your root and you are his branch. And without him, you would not be. Whenever you see anything in yourself which pleases you, you should know that your father is the root of its blessing upon you. So praise God and thank Him in recognition of that. And there is no power but in God.

23 حق الأب

وَأمَّا حَقُّ أَبيكَ فَتَعْلَــــــــــمَ أنَّهُ أَصْلُكَ، وَأنَّكَ فَرْعُــــــهُ، وَأَنَّكَ لَوْلاهُ لَمْ تَكُنْ. فَمَهْمَــــــــــا رَأيْتَ فِي نفْسِكَ مِمَّا يُعْجِبُكَ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ أَبَاكَ أَصْلُ النِّعْمَةِ عَلَيْكَ فِيهِ وَاحْمَــــــــــــــــــدِ اللَّهَ وَاشْكُرْهُ عَلَى قَدْرِ ذَلِكَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلاّ باللهِ.


And the right of your child is that you should know that he is from you and he will be ascribed to you in this world through both his good deeds and his evil deeds. And you are responsible for what has been entrusted to you in teaching him good conduct, and guiding him toward his Lord and helping him to obey Him on your behalf and for himself. Then you will be rewarded for so doing, and you will be punished. Then regarding his affairs, act like one who will be proud of bringing him up in this world, and one who is excused by His Lord for what is between you and him for taking good care of him, and the good results you achieved. And there is no power but in God.

24 حق الولد

وَأمَّا حَقُّ وَلَدِكَ فَتَعْلَمَ أنَّهُ مِنْكَ وَمُضَافٌ إلَيكَ فِي عَاجِلِ الدُنْيَـــــــــا بخَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ، وَأَنَّكَ مَسْئولٌ عَمَّــــــا ولِّيتَهُ مِنْ حُسْنِ الأَدَب وَالدّلالَةِ عَلَى رَبـــــــــهِ وَالْمَعُونةِ لَهُ عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ فِيكَ وَفِي نفْسِهِ، فَمُثابٌ عَلَى ذلِكَ وَمُعَاقَبٌ، فَـــــــــاعْمَلْ فِي أَمْرِهِ عَمَلَ الْمُتَزَيِّنِ بحُسْنِ أَثرِهِ عَلَيْهِ فِي عَاجِلِ الدُّنْيَا، الْمُعْذِرِ إلَى رَبهِ فِيمَـــــــا بَيْنَكَ وبَيْنَهُ بحُسْنِ الْقِيَامِ عَلَيْهِ وَالأَخذُ لَهُ مِنْهُ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your brother is that you should know that he is your hand that you extend, and your back to whom you seek refuge, and your power upon whom you rely, and your might with which you compete. Take him not as a weapon with which to disobey God, nor as a means with which to violate God’s rights. And do not neglect to help him against his own self and support him against his enemy, and intervene between him and his devils, and give him good counsel, and associate with him for God’s sake. Then if he obeys his Lord and is responsible towards Him properly it is fine. Else God should be more preferable and more honorable to you than he is.

25 حق الأخ

وَأَمّا حَقُّ أَخِيكَ فَتَعْلَمَ أَنّهُ يَدُكَ الَّتِي تَبسُطُهَــــــا، وَظَهْرُكَ الَّذِي تَلْتَجِئُ إلَيـــــــــــهِ، وَعِزُّكَ الَّذِي تَعْتَمِدُ عَلَيهِ، وَقُوَّتُكَ الَّتِي تَصُولُ بهَـــا، فَلا تَتَّخِذْهُ سِلاحًا عـــَلَى مَــعــْصــِيـةِ اللَّهِ ولا عُدَّةً لِلظُّلْمِ بحَــــــــــقِّ اللَّهِ، ولا تَدَعْ نُصْرتَهُ عَلَى نفْسِــــــــهِ وَمَعُونتِهِ عَلَى عَدُوِّهِ وَالْحَوْلَ بَيْنَهُ وبَيْنَ شَيَاطينهِ وتَأْديَةِ النَّصِيحَةِ إلَيهِ والإقبَالِ عَلَيْهِ فِي اللَّهِ فَــــــــــإنْ انقَادَ لِرَبهِ وَأَحْسَنَ الإجَابَةَ لَهُ وَإلاّ فَلْيَكُنِ اللهُ آثرَ عِنْدَكَ وَأَكْرَمَ عَلَيْكَ مِنْهُ



Then the right of your master who has favored you is that you should know that he has spent his property for you and has brought you out of the abasement of slavery and its desolation, and has brought you into the honor of freedom and its sociability. And he has freed you from the captivity of his own possession and has released the bonds of his slavery from you. And he has led you to smell the scent of honor, and has brought you out of the prison of subjugation, and has repelled hardship from you, and has extended to you the tongue of fairness, and has liberated you to freely move about in the whole world, and has given you ownership of yourself, and has freed you from captivity, and has given you the freedom to worship your Lord.

And for this he has suffered a decrease in his fortune. Then you should know that he is the closest creature to you after your relations of kin, in your life and after your death, and that he is the most meritorious creature to receive your assistance and support, and your help for God’s sake. Therefore do not prefer yourself to him regarding any of his needs.

حقوق الآخرين

26 . حق المنعم على مولاه

وَأَمّــــــــــــا حَقُّ الْمُنْعِمِ عَلَيْكَ بالْولاءِ فَــأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنّهُ أَنفَقَ فِيكَ مَالَـــهُ، وَأَخرَجَكَ مِن ذُلِّ الرِّقِ وَوَحْشَــــــــــــــتِهِ إلَى عِزِّ الحُرِّيةِ وأُنسِهـــــا، وَأَطْلَقَكَ مِنْ أَسْرِ الْمِلْكَةِ، وَفَـــــكَّ عَنْكَ حـــــِلَقَ الْعُبُودِيَّةِ، وَأَوْجَدَكَ رَائِحَة الْعِزِّ، وَأَخرَجَكَ مِنْ سِجْنِ القَهْرِ، وَدَفَـــــــــــعَ عَنْكَ الْعُسْرَ، وبَسَطَ لَكَ لِسَـــــــــــانَ الإنْصَافِ، وَأَبَاحَكَ الدُنْيَــــــــا كُلَّهَا فَمَلَّكَكَ نفْسَــــــكَ، وَحَلَّ أَسْرَكَ، وَفَرَّغَكَ لِعِبَادَةِ رَبكَ، وَاحْتَمَلَ بذَلِكَ التَّقْصِيرَ

فِي مَالِهِ، فَتَعْلَـــــــــــمَ أَنّهُ أَوْلَى الخَلْقِ بكَ بَعْـــــدَ أُولي رَحِمِكَ فِي حَيَاتِكَ وَمَوْتِكَ، وَأَحَقَّ الخَــــــــــــــلْقِ بنَصْرِكَ وَمَعُونَتِكَ وَمُكَانفَتِكَ فِي ذَات اللَّهِ، فَلا تُؤثِرْ عَلَيْهِ نفْسَكَ مَا احْتَاجَ إلَيْكَ.


And the right of the slave whom you have favored 39is that you should know that God has established you as his supporter, and shelter and assistant, and refuge, and He has established him for you as the means and as a mediator between you and Him. Then by freeing him, he will protect you from the Fire 41. And this is the reward you get from him in the future. And your immediate reward is to inherit from him if he does not have any relations of kin. There is a compensation for the property you have spent for him, and respecting his rights after you spent your property. Then if you do not respect his rights, there is the fear upon you that his inheritance would not be purified for you. And there is no power but in God.

27 حق المولى الجارية عليه نعمتك

وَأَمَّـــــــــــــــــا حَقُّ مَوْلاكَ الْجَارِيَةِ عَلَيْهِ نِعْمَتُكَ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّ اللهَ جَعَلَكَ حَــامِيَةً عَلَيْهِ، وَوَاقِيَــــــــــــةً وناصِرًا وَمَعْقِلاً، وَجَعَلَهُ لَكَ وَسِيلَةً وَسَبَباً بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ فَبالْحَرِيِّ أَنْ يَحْجُبَكَ عَنِ النَّــــــــــــــارِ فَيَكُونَ فِي ذَلِكَ ثَوَابٌ مِنْهُ فِي الآجِلِ، ويَحْكُمُ لَكَ بمِيرَاثِهِ فِي الْعَاجِلِ إذَا لم يَكُنْ لَهُ رَحِــــــــــــــــــمٌ، مُكَافَأَةً لِمَـــــــــــا أَنفَقْتَهُ مِنْ مَالِكَ عَلَيْــــــــــهِ وَقُمْتَ بهِ مِنْ حَقِّـــــهِ بَعْدَ إنفَاقِ مَالِكَ، فَإنْ لَمْ تَقُمْ بحَقِّهِ خِيفَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ لا يَطِيبَ لَكَ مِيرَاثُهُ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him who treats you kindly is that you should thank him and acknowledge his kindness; and spread the good word around about him, and sincerely pray for him between you and God the Praised One. Then if you do that, you have thanked him both in private and in public. Then if you are able to practically recompense him, Do recompense him. Otherwise you should be determined to do so later.

28 حق ذي المعروف

وَأمّا حَقُّ ذِي المَعْرُوفِ عَلَيكَ فَـــــــأَنْ تَشْكُرَهُ وتَذْكُرَ مَعْرُوفَهُ وتَنْشُرَ لَهُ الْمَقَــــــــــالَةَ الْحَسَنَةَ، وَتُخلِصَ لَهُ الدُّعَـــــاءَ فِيمَــــا بَينَكَ وبَيْنَ اللَّهِ سُبْحَانَهُ، فَإنّكَ إذَا فَعَلْتَ ذَلِكَ كُنْتَ قَدْ شَكَرْتَهُ سِرًّا وَعَلانِيَـةً. ثُمَّ إنْ أَمْكَنَ مُكَافَأَتَهُ بالْفِعْلِ كَافَأتَهُ وإلاّ كُنْتَ مُرْصِدًا لَهُ مُوطِّنًا نَفْسَكَ عَلَيْهَا.


And the right of your caller to prayer is that you should know that he is the one reminding you of your Lord, and is calling you to your good fortune, and is your greatest helper in fulfilling an obligation that God has made incumbent upon you. Therefore thank him for that just as you thank one who does some good to you. And if you are upset with him at home due to this, you should not accuse him for this since his act is for God. And you should know that he is one of the Blessings of God to you. There is no doubt about it. Then you should kindly treat God’s Blessing, by praising God for him under all circumstances. And there is no power but in God.

29 حق المؤذن

وَأمّا حَقُّ الْمُؤَذِّنِ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أنّهُ مُذَكِّرُكَ برَبكَ وَدَاعِـــــيكَ إلَى حَظِّكَ وَأَفْضَلُ أَعْوَانِكَ عَلَى قَضَـــــــــــاءِ الْفَرِيضَةِ الَّتِي افتَرَضَهَا اللهُ عَلَيْكَ فَتَشْكُرَهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ شُكْرَكَ لِلْمُحْسِنِ إلَيكَ. وَإنْ كُنْتَ فِي بَيْتِكَ مُهْتَمًّا لِذَلِكَ لَمْ تَكُنْ للهِ فِي أَمْرِهِ مُتَّهِمــــــاً وَعَلِمْتَ أنَّهُ نِعْمَةٌ مِن اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ، لا شَكَّ فِيهَــــا، فَــــــــــــأَحْسِنْ صُحْبَةَ نِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ بحَمْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَــــــا عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your leader in your ritual prayer is that you should know that he has taken on the role of a mediator between you and God and appeared in the presence of your Lord on your behalf. And he speaks for you, but you do not speak for him; and he supplicates for you, but you do not supplicate for him; and he has beseeched for you and you do not beseech for him. And he has spared you the anxiety of standing before God and the question of interrogation for your prayer, but you do not spare him that. Should he perform the prayer imperfectly, he is held responsible for that not you; and if he makes a mistake during the prayer, you will not be his partner in it, and there is no superiority in this for him over you. Then he protected you through himself, And he protected your prayer through his prayer. Therefore thank him for this. And there is no power nor any strength but in God.

30 حق الإمام في الصلاة

وَأمّا حَقُّ إمَامِكَ فِي صَلاتِكَ فَــــــــــــــــــأَنْ تَعلَمَ أنّهُ قَدْ تَقَلَّدَ السِّفَارَةَ فِيمَــــا بَيْنَكَ وبَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَالْوِفَادَةَ إلَى رَبكَ، وتَكَلَّمَ عَنْكَ وَلَمْ تَتَكَلَّـــــمْ عَنْهُ، وَدعَا لَكَ وَلَمْ تَدْعُ لَهُ، وَطَلَبَ فِيكَ وَلَـــــــــــــــــمْ تَطْلُبْ فِيهِ، وَكَفَاكَ هَمَّ الْمَقَــــــــامِ بَينَ يدي اللهِ وَالمُسَـــــــــاءَلَةَ لَهُ فِيكَ وَلَمْ تَكْفِهِ ذَلِكَ، فَــــــــــــإنْ كَانَ فِي شَيْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ تَقْصِيرٌ كَانَ بهِ دُونَكَ، وَإنْ كَانَ آثِمـــــــــــــاً لَمْ تَكُنْ شَرِيكَهُ فِيهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ عَلَيكَ فَضلٌ، فَوقَى نَفْسَكَ بنَفْســـــــــــــــِهِ، وَوَقَى صـَلاتَكَ بصَلاتِهِ، فَتَشْكُرَ لَهُ عَلَى ذلِكَ. ولا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your sitting companion is that you should treat him gently, and warmly welcome him, and be fair while talking with him, and do not take your eyes off of him when you are looking at him, and pronounce your words clearly to help him understand what you say. And if you are the first one to go and sit with him, you can leave him when you wish. However, if he is the first one to come and sit with you, he can leave you when he wishes to. And you should not leave him without his permission. And there is no power but in God.

31 حق الجليس

وَأمّــــا حَقُّ الجَلِيسِ فَأَنْ تُلِينَ لَهُ كَنَفَكَ، وَتُطِيبَ لَهُ جَانِبَكَ، وَتُنْصِفَهُ فِي مُجَارَاةِ اللَّفْظِ ولا تُغْرِق فِي نَزْعِ اللَّحْــظِ إذَا لَحَظْتَ وتَقْصُدَ فِي اللَّفْظِ إلَى إفْهَــــــــامِهِ إذَا لَفَظْتَ. وَإنْ كُنْتَ الْجَلِيــــــــــــــــــسَ إلَيْهِ كُنْتَ فِي الْقِيَـــــــــــــــامِ عَنْهُ بالْخِيَارِ وَإنْ كَانَ الجَالِسَ إلَيكَ كَانَ بالخِيَـــــــــارِ. ولا تَقُومُ إلا بــإذْنِهِ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your neighbor is that you should be as a guardian for him when he is absent, and you should honor him when he is present, and you should assist and support him in both situations. You should not pursue any of his imperfections, and you should not seek any of his faults. But if you should discover any of his faults unintentionally, you should take the role of -regarding what you know- a fortified stronghold and a veiling screen. You should guard them in such a way that none of his defects can be discovered even if they are thoroughly inspected through spears. And you should not eavesdrop on him, and you should not forsake him during times of hardship. And you should not envy him when he receives a blessing.

Pardon his deviation and forgive his mistakes. And do not lose your temper when he behaves out of ignorance with you. And do not stop to be his supporter, and answer those who scold him. And divulge for him the deception of those who counsel him, and associate with him in an honorable manner. And there is no power nor any strength but in God.

32 حق الجار

وَأمّــا حَقُّ الجَارِ فَحِفْظُهُ غَائِبًا وَكَرَامَتُهُ شَاهِدًا ونُصْرَتُهُ وَمَعُونتُهُ فِي الحَـالَينِ جَمِيعــاً. لا تَتَّبعْ لَهُ عَوْرَةً ولا تَبحَثْ لَهُ عَنْ سَوْءَ[ةٍ] لِتَعْرِفَهَــــــــــا، فَإنْ عَرَفْتَهَــــــا مِنْهُ عَنْ غَيْرِ إرَادَةٍ مِنْكَ وَلا تَكَلُّفٍ كُنْتَ لِمَــــا عَلِمْتَ حِصْنـــاً حَصِينـــاً وَسِتْرًا سَــــــــــــتِيرًا، لَوْ بَحَثتِ الأَسِنَّةُ عَنْهُ ضَمِيرًا لَمْ تَتَّصِلْ إلَيْه لانطِوَائِهِ عَلَيهِ. لا تَسْــتَمِعْ عَلَيهِ مِنْ حَيْثُ لا يَعْلَـــمُ. لا تُسَلِّمْهُ عِنْدَ شَـــــــــــديدَةٍ، ولا تَحْسُدْهُ عِنْـــــــــــدَ نِعْمَةٍ. تُقِيلُ

عَثْرَتهُ وتَغْفِرْ زَلَّتَـــــــــهُ. ولا تَدَّخِرْ حِلْمَكَ عَنْهُ إذَا جَهِلَ عَلَيْــــــــــــــــــكَ، ولا تَخرُجْ أَنْ تَكُونَ سُلَّمًا لَهُ. تَرُدُّ عَنهُ لِسَانَ الشَّتِيمَةِ، وَتُبْطِلُ فِيهِ كَيْدَ حَـــــــــــامِلِ النَّصِيحَةِ، وَتُعَــــــاشِرَهُ مُعَاشَرَةً كَرِيمَةً. وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of the companion is that you should act as his companion with nobility as much as you can. You should at least treat him with fairness and honor him as he honors you, and guard him as he guards you, and do not let him be the first one to deal with the other one with honor. And if he does so, you should do something for him in return. And you should not neglect the friendship that he deserves in the least bit. You should commit yourself to advise him, care for him, and help him perform the acts of obedience to his Lord, and help him restrain himself from any act of disobedience of his Lord that he might attempt. Then be like a mercy upon him, and not as a chastisement. And there is no power but in God.

33 حق الصاحب

وَأمـــــــــــــّا حَقُّ الصَّاحِب فَأَنْ تَصْحَبَهُ بالفَضلِ مَـــــــا وَجَدْتَ إلَيهِ سَبيلاً وإلا فَلا أَقَلَّ مِنَ الإنصَــــــــافِ، وَأَنْ تُكْرِمَهُ كَمَا يـُكْرِمُكَ، وَتـحْفَظَـــــــــــــــــهُ كَمَا يـَحْفَظُكَ، ولا يَسْبقَكَ فِيمَــا بَينَكَ وبَينَهُ إلَى مـَكْرَمَةٍ، فَـــــــــــــإنْ سَبَقَكَ كَافَـــأتَهُ. ولا تُقَصِّرَ بهِ عَمَّا يَسْتَحِقُّ مِنَ الْمَوَدَّةِ. تُلْزِمُ نفْسَكَ نصِيحَتَهُ وَحِيَـــــــــاطَتَهُ وَمُعَاضَدتَهُ عَلَى طَـــــاعَةِ رَبهِ وَمَعُونتَهُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ فِيمَــــــــا لا يَهُمُّ بهِ مِنْ مَعْصِيةِ رَبهِ، ثُمَّ تَكُونُ [عَلَيْهِ] رَحْمَةً ولا تَكُونُ عَلَيهِ عَذَاباً. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of the partner is that you should take care of his affairs in his absence. And you should treat him equally when he is present. And you should not make any decisions on your own without considering his opinion. And you should not act according to your own opinion before discussing it with him. You should safeguard his property, and advise him against cheating whether there is honor or disdain in it, since it has been transmitted to us: “God’s hand is with partners as long as they do not cheat.” And there is no power but in God.

34 حق الشريك

وَأمّــا حَقُّ الشَّرِيكِ، فَإنْ غَابَ كَفَيْتَـــــــــــــــــهُ، وَإنْ حَضَرَ سَــــــــــــاويْتَهُ، ولا تَعْزِمْ عَلَى حُكْمِكَ دُونَ حُكْمِـــــهِ، وَلا تَعمَــــــــــــــــــلْ برَأْيكَ دُونَ مُنــــاظَرَتهِ، وتَحْفَظُ عَلَيْهِ مَالَهُ وَتنْفِي عَنْهُ خِيَانتَهُ فِيمَـا عَزَّ أَو هَانَ فَإنَّهُ بَلَغَنَا أَنَّ “يَدَ اللهِ عَلَى الشَّرِيـكَيْنِ مَــــــــــــــــــا لَمْ يَتَخاوَنا”. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your property is that you should not attain it except by legitimate means and you should only spend it for legitimate causes. You should not spend it improperly, you should not use it wrongfully, and you should not use what is from God in ways other than in His way and make it as a means to approach God. And you should not prefer to use it for one who does not show gratitude instead of using it for yourself. It is better that you do not leave it for others as inheritance who might use it not to obey your Lord, and then your wealth may be considered to be as an assistance for them in so doing. Or you may bequeath your property to one who spends it in the way of obedience to God in ways better than you do. Then he will gain the benefits, and you will be left with the sins, and the regret, and blame yourself for the ill consequence. And there is no power but in God.

35 حق المال

وَأمّا حَقُّ المَالِ، فَأَنْ لا تَأْخُذَهُ إلاّ مِنْ حِلِّهِ، ولا تُنْفِقَهُ إلاّ فِي حِلِّهِ، وَلا تُحَرِّفْــــــــــــــــــهُ عَنْ مَـــــــــوَاضِعِهِ، ولا تَصْرِفَهُ عَنْ حَقَـــــــــــــــائِقِهِ، ولا تَجْعَلْهُ إذا كَانَ مِنَ اللَّهِ إلاّ إلَيهِ وَسَبَباً إلَى اللَّهِ. ولا تُـــــــــؤثِرَ بهِ عَلَى نفْسِـــــــكَ مَنْ لَعَلَّهُ لا يَحْمَدُكَ، وَبالْحَرِيِّ أَنْ لا يُحْســـــــــــــــِنَ خِلافَتَــــــــهُ فِي تَرِكَتِكَ ولا يَعْمَلُ فِيهِ بطَـــــــــاعَةِ ربكَ فَتَكُونَ مُعِينًا لَهُ عَلَى ذلِكَ أَو بمَـــــــا أَحْدَثَ فِي مَالِكَ أَحْسَنَ نَظَرًا لِنَفْسِهِ، فَيَعْمَلَ بطَاعَةِ رَبهِ فَيَذْهَبَ بالْغَنِيمَةِ وتَبُوءَ بالإثمِ وَالْحَسْرَةِ وَالنَّدَامَةِ مَعَ التَّبعَةِ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him to whom you owe is that you should pay him back if you have the means to do so. You should meet his need, make him rich, and avoid putting him off and procrastinating. The Prophet, may God’s peace be upon him and his household, said: “Procrastination is oppression for the rich.” But if you are in hardship you should satisfy him by using good words. You should gently ask him and send him away with gentleness. You should not take his property and mistreat him too. That will surely be mean. And there is no power but in God.

36 حق الغريم الطالب

وَأمّا حَقُّ الغَرِيمِ الطَّالِب لَكَ، فَإنْ كُنْتَ مُوسِرًا أَوفَيتَهُ وَكَفَيتَهُ وَأَغْنَيتَهُ وَلَـــــــــــمْ ترْدُدْهُ وتَمْطُلْهُ فَإنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ – قَالَ – “مَـطَلُ الغَنِيَّ ظُلْـــــــــــــــمٌ”. وَإنْ كُنْتَ مُعْسِرًا أَرْضَيتَــــــــــــــهُ بحُسْنِ القَوْلِ وَطَلَبتَ إلَيهِ طَلَباً جَـــمِيلاً وَرَدَدتَهُ عَنْ نفْسِكَ ردًّا لَطِيفًا، وَلَمْ تَجْمَعَ عَلَيْهِ ذهَابَ مَالِهِ وَسُوءَ مُعَامَلَتِهِ فَإنَّ ذلِكَ لؤمٌ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلاّ باللهِ.


And the right of the associate is that you should not mislead, or cheat him, lie to him or fool him, and you should not trick him. And you should not treat him as an enemy does -who alienates all his friends. If he trusts you, you should be very careful of yourself for his sake, and realize that cheating the intimate ones is like usury. And there is no power but in God.

37 حق الخليط

وَأمّــــــا حَقُّ الخَلِيطِ فَأَنْ لا تَغُرَّهُ ولا تَغُشَّـهُ ولا تُكَذِبَهُ ولا تُغَفِّلَهُ ولا تَخــــــــدَعَهُ ولا تَعمَلْ فِي انتِقَـــاضِهِ عَمَلَ الْعَدُوِّ الَّذِي لا يُبقِي عَلَى صَـــــــاحِبهِ وَإنِ اطْمَأَنَّ إلَيكَ اسْتَقْصَيتَ لَهُ عَلَى نفْسِـكَ وَعَلِمْتَ أَنَّ غَبْنَ الْمُسْتَرْسِلِ رِِبًا. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.



And the right of the adversary who has a claim against you is that if his claim against you is true, you should not nullify his proof and not abolish his claim. And you should dispute against yourself on his behalf and be a fair judge against yourself, and give witness to his right against you without the witnessing of any witnesses. This is the right of God that is made incumbent upon you. But if what he claims against you is false, treat him with patience and remind him to fear God, and implore him to his religion. And by reminding him of God you should help reduce his fury against you.Avoid using indecent words and yelling at him since this will not eliminate the animosity of your enemy but it will result in your suffering from the sin he commits against you.

And it will also result in his sharpening of the sword of animosity towards you, since indecent words will cause evil but good words will eradicate evil. And there is no power but in God.

38 حق الخصم

حق الخصم المدعي عليك

وَأمّــــــــا حَقُّ الخَصْمِ المُدَّعِي عَلَيْكَ، فَإنْ كَانَ مَا يَدَّعِي عَلَيكَ حَقّــــــــاً لَمْ تنفَسِخ فِي حُجَّتِهِ وَلَمْ تَعمَلْ فِي إبطَـــــالِ دَعْوَتِهِ وَكُنْتَ خَصْــــــــــمَ نفْسِكَ لَهُ والحَـــاكِمَ عَلَيْهَا والشَّـــاهِدَ لَهُ بحَقِّهِ دُونَ شَهَادَةِ الشُّهُودِ، فَـــــــــإنَّ ذلِكَ حَقُّ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ، وَإنْ كَانَ مَـــا يَدَّعِيهِ بَـــــــــاطِلاً رَفَقْتَ بهِ وَرَوَّعْتَهُ  ونـــــاشَدتهُ بدِينِه وَكَسَرْتَ حِدَّتهُ عَنكَ بذِكْرِ اللهِ وَأَلْقَيْتَ حَشْوَ الْكَلامِ وَلَغَطَـــــــهُ الَّذِي لا يَرُدُّ عَنْكَ عَـــــــــــاديَةَ عَدُوِّكَ بَلْ تبُوءُ بإثمِهِ وَبهِ يَشْحَذُ

عَلَيْكَ سَيفَ عَدَاوَتِهِ لأَنَّ لَفْظَةَ السُّوءِ تَبعَثُ الشَّرَّ. وَالخَيْرُ مُقْمِعَةٌ لِلشَّرِّ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of the adversary against whom you have a claim is that if your claim against him is true, you should use pleasant words while you are filing your claim, since hearing the claim is harsh for the defendant. And you should provide your evidence with lenience, and respite, and with the clearest statements, and with absolute gentleness. And you should not dispute with him over gossip lest your proofs will be voided and you will lose the opportunity to prove them. And there is no power but in God.

39 حق الخصم المدعى عليه

وَأمّــــــا حَقُّ الخَصْمِ الْمُدَّعَى عَلَيهِ فَإنْ كَانَ مَــــــــا تدَّعِيهِ حَقًّا أَجْمَلْتَ فِي مُقَـــــاوَلَتِهِ(40) بمَخرَجِ الدَّعْوَى، فَإنّ لِلدَّعْوَى غِلْظَةً فِي سَــــــــــــــمْعِ الْمُدَّعَى عَلَيهِ. وَقَصَــــــــــــــــدْتَ قَصْدَ حُجَّتِكَ بالرِّفْقِ وَأَمْهَلِ الْمُهْلَةِ وَأبْينِ الْبَيَـــــــانِ وَألطَفِ اللُّطْفِ ولَمْ تَتشَـــــــاغَلْ عَنْ حُجَّتِكَ بمُنازَعَتِهِ بالقِيلِ وَالقَــــــــــــــــالِ فَتَذهَبْ عَنْكَ حُجَّتُكَ ولا يَكُونَ لَكَ فِي ذَلِكَ دَرْكٌ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him who seeks your advice is that you should exert all efforts to advise him if you can provide him with a good opinion, and suggest to him to choose what you would have chosen if you were in his shoes. You should do so with mercy and with lenience since lenience will eliminate fear while rudeness will eliminate friendliness. But if you do not have any good advice for him, you should refer him to someone else whom you know and trust his advice yourself. You should spare no efforts to guide him towards the good and do your best to advise him. And there is no power but in God.

40 حق المستشير

وَأمّــــــــــــا حَقُّ المُسْتَشِيرِ، فَإنْ حَضَرَكَ لَهُ وَجْهُ رَأْىٍ جَهَدْتَ لَهُ فِي النَّصِيحَـــــــــةِ، وَأَشَرْتَ عَلَيهِ بمَا تَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ لَوْ كُنْتَ مَكَانهُ عَمِلْتَ بهِ، وَذَلِكَ لِيَكُنْ مِنْكَ فِي رَحْمَةٍ وَلِينٍ، فَإنَّ اللِّينَ يُؤْنِسُ الْوَحْشَةَ وَإنَّ الْغِلْظَ يُوحِشُ مَوضِعَ الأنْسِ. وَإنْ لَمْ يَحْضُرْكَ لَهُ رَأيٌ وَعَرَفْتَ لَهُ مَنْ تثِقُ برَأيِهِ وَترْضَى بهِ لِنَفْسِكَ دَلَلْتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَرْشَدتَهُ إلَيْهِ، فَكُنْتَ لَمْ تَـــــــــــــألُهُ خَيرًا وَلَمْ تَدَّخِرْهُ نُصْحاً. ولا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him whose advice you seek is that you should not accuse him when he gives you advice which does not conform to your own opinion. It is quite natural that opinions are divergent and people have various views about their affairs in which they disagree. You are free not to accept his advice if you doubt it. However, you are not permitted to accuse him of providing you with ill advice as long as you consider him to be of those worthy of consultation. Do not stop thanking him for the thoughts and the good advice he has given you. And if it was appropriate for you, you should thank God for it, accept it from your religious brother with gratitude, and be ready to act similarly for him should one day he seek your advice. And there is no power but in God.

41 حق المشير

وَأمّـــــــــا حَقُّ المُشِيرِ عَلَيْكَ فَلا تتَّهِمْهُ فِيمَا لا يُوافِقُكَ عَلَيهِ مِنْ رَأْيِهِ إذا أَشَــــــارَ عَلَيْكَ فَإنَّمَا هِيَ الآرَاءُ وَتصَرُّفُ النَّــــاسِ فِيهَــــــا وَاختِلافُهُمْ. فَكُنْ عَلَيهِ فِي رَأيِهِ بالخِيَارِ إذا اتَّهمْتَ رَأْيَهُ، فَأَمّا تُهْمتُهُ فَلا تَجُوزُ لَكَ إذَا كَانَ عِنْدكَ مِمَّنْ يَسْتَحِقُّ الْمُشَاوَرَةَ. وَلا تَدَعْ شُكْرَهُ عَلَى مَـا بَدَا لَكَ مِن إشْــــــــخاصِ رَأْيِهِ وَحُسْنِ وَجْهِ مَشُورَتِهِ، فَإذا وَافَقَكَ حَمِدتَ اللَّهَ وَقَبلْتَ ذلِكَ مِن أَخِيكَ بالشُّــــــــــــــــــــــــكْرِ والإرْصَادِ بالْمُكَافَأَةِ فِي مِثلِهَـــــا إنْ فَزِعَ إلَيْكَ. وَلا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him who seeks your counsel is that you should give him your counsel as much as you think he can bear. And you should talk with him with such gentle words that he listens to you and you should use such words that his intellect can understand. This is because for each person’s intellect there is a certain way of talking, which he can comprehend and respond to. You should choose having mercy as your course of action. And there is no power but in God.

42 حق المستنصح

وَأمّــا حَقُّ المُسْتَنصِحِ فَإنَّ حَقَّهُ أَنْ تُؤَدِّيَ إلَيهِ النَّصِيحَةَ عَلَى الحَقِّ الَّذِي تَرَى لَهُ أنّهُ يحْمِلُ وَتخرُجَ المَخرَجَ الَّذِي يَلينُ عَلَى مَسَـــــــــــــامِعِهِ، وتُكَلِّمَهُ مِنَ الْكَلامِ بمَا يُطِيقُهُ عَقلُهُ، فَإنَّ لِكُلِّ عَقْلٍ طَبقَــــــــــــــــــةً مِنَ الْكَلامِ يَعْرِفُــــــــهُ ويَجْتَنِبُهُ، وَلْيَكُنْ مَذهَبَكَ الرَّحْمَـــةَ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of your counselor is that you should treat him gently, then you should be whole-heartedly attentive to him, and open you ears for him so that you understand his counsel. And then study it deeply and if what he presents to you is right, you should praise God for it, and accept it from him and acknowledge his favor. But if what he presents to you does not agree with you, you should be kind to him and make no accusations against him; and you should know that he spared no efforts to provide you with the best advice, but he made a mistake. Unless he deserves to be accused in which case you should not trust him under any circumstances. And there is no power but in God.

43 حق الناصح

وَأمّــــــا حَقُّ النَّاصِحِ فَأَنْ تُلِينَ لَهُ جَنَاحَكَ ثُمَّ تشرأب لَهُ قَلبَكَ وَتفْتَحَ لَهُ سَـــــــــمْعَكَ حتَّى تَفْهَمَ عَنهُ نصِيحَتَهُ، ثُمَّ تنْظُرَ فِيهَـــــا، فَإنْ كَانَ وُفّقَِ فِيهَا لِلصَّوَاب حَمِدْتَ اللَّهَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَقَبلْتَ مِنْـــــــــــــــــــهُ وَعَرَفْتَ لَهُ نَصِيحَتَهُ، وَإنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ وُفّقَِ لَهَا فِيهَا رَحِمْتَهُ وَلَمْ تتَّهِمَهُ وَعَلِمْتَ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يألُكَ نُصْحًا إلا أنَّهُ أَخطَـــــأَ إلا أَنْ يَكُونَ عِنْدَكَ مُسْتَحِقًّا لِلتُّهْمَةِ فلا تَعْبَـــــأْ بشيء مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him who is older than you are is that you should respect him because of his age, and honor his submission to God if he is one of the noble ones in Islam. You should recognize his seniority and stop confronting him in disputes and should not surpass him or walk ahead of him, and you should not treat him foolishly. If he should treat you foolishly, you should put up with him and honor him to respect his being an older Muslim. This is because the respect for one’s age is according to how long he has been a Muslim. And there is no power but in God.

44 حق الكبير

وَأمّا حَقُّ الكبيرِ فَإنَّ حَقَّهُ تَوقِيرُ سِنِّهِ وَإجْلالِ إسْلامِهِ إذَا كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْفَضلِ فِي الإسْلامِ بتَقْدِيمِهِ فِيهِ وتَرْكِ مُقَابَلَتِهِ عِنْدَ الْخِصَــــــــــامِ ولا تَسْبقْهُ إلَى طَرِيقٍ، ولا تَؤُمَّهُ فِي طـرِيقٍ ولا تَسْـــــــتَجْهِلْهُ. وَإنْ جَهِلَ عَلَيْكَ تحَمَّلْتَ وَأَكْرَمتَهُ بحَقِّ إسْلامِهِ مَعَ سِنِّهِ فَإنّمَـــــــا حَقُّ السِّنِّ بقَدْرِ الإسْلامِ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him who is younger than you are is to be friendly with him, train and educate him, pardon him, and cover up his faults, be patient with him and help him, cover up the guilts of his juvenility because this will make him repent; treat him with patience, and stop quarrelling with him. This will lead him to more sensible conduct.

45 حق الصغير

وَأمّـــــــــا حَقُّ الصَّغِيرِ فَرَحْمتُهُ وتَثقِيفُهُ وتَعْلِيمُهُ وَالعَفْوُ عَنْهُ وَالسِّترُ عَلَـــــــــــــــيهِ وَالرِّفْقُ بهِ وَالمَعُونَةُ لــــــــــــــــَهُ وَالسِّترُ عَلَى جَرَائِرِ حَدَاثتِهِ فَإنّهُ سَبَبٌ لِلتَّوبَةِ وَالْمُدَارَاةُ لَـــــــــــهُ وتَرْكُ مُمَاحَكَتِهِ، فَإنَّ ذَلِكَ أَدنى لِرُشْدِهِ.


And the right of him who begs from you is that you should give him charity if you are certain that he is honest and you are able to fulfill his need. You should also pray to God to relieve him from what has befallen upon him, and help fulfill his needs. But if you doubt his honesty and he has already been accused of (dishonesty), but you are not convinced about this, you will not be sure whether this is one of the plots of Satan who is trying to deprive you from your fortune and cause a blockage between you and your approach to your Lord. Then you should leave him and overlook and should turn him down gently. But if you can overcome yourself in this respect and grant him what he has asked for despite what is presented to you regarding him, then this is due to your resolution in the conduct of affairs.

46 حق السائل

وَأمّا حَقُّ السَّائِلِ فَإعْطَاؤُهُ إذا تَيَقَّنتَ صِدْقَهُ وَقَدَرْتَ عَلَى سَدِّ حَاجَتِهِ، وَالدُّعَاءُ لَهُ فِيمَـا نزَلَ بهِ، وَالْمُعَاوَنةُ لَهُ عَلَى طَلِبَتِهِ، وَإن شَكَكْتَ فِي صِدْقِهِ وَسَبَقْتَ إلَيهِ التُّهْمَةُ لَهُ وَلَمْ تَعْزِمْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ لَمْ تَأْمَنْ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنْ كَيْدِ الشَّيْطَانِ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَصُدَّكَ عَنِ حَظِّكَ ويَحُولَ بَيْنَكَ وبَينَ التَّقَرُّب إلَى رَبكَ فَتَرَكْتَـــــــــــــهُ بسِترِهِ وَرَدَدتَهُ رَدًّا جَـــــــمِيلاً. وَإنْ غَلَبتَ نفْسَــــــــــــــــكَ فِي أَمْرِهِ وَأَعْطَيتَهُ عَلَى مَـــــا عَرَضَ فِي نفْسِكَ مِنْهُ، فإنَّ ذلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الأُمُورِ.


And the right of him from whom you beg is that you should accept from him whatever he grants you with gratitude and acknowledges his nobility. And you should accept his excuse if he withholds and think well of him. And you should realize that if he withholds, he is withholding his own property, and that he could not be blamed for withholding his own property. If he is doing wrong, “then man is certainly wrong-doing and unbelieving.”

47 حق المسؤول

وَأمّــــــــا حَقُّ المَسئولِ فَحَقُّهُ إنْ أَعْطَى قُبلَ مِنْهُ مَـــــــــــــا أَعْطَى بالشُّكْرِ لَهُ وَالمَعْرِفَةِ لِفَضْلِهِ وَطَلَبَ وَجْهِ الْعُذْرِ فِي مَنعِهِ، وَأَحْسَنَ بهِ الظَّنَّ. وَاعْلَمْ أنَّهُ إنْ مَنِعَ [فَ]مَالَهُ مَنَعَ وَأَنْ لَيْسَ التَّثرِيبُ فِي مَــــــــــالِه، وَإنْ كَانَ ظَالِمًا فَإنَّ الإنسَانَ لَظلُومٌ كَفَّارٌ.


And the right of him through whom God makes you happy is that if he intentionally made you happy, you should first praise God and then you should thank him accordingly, and reward him for initiating a nobility and be determined to return his favor. But if he made you happy unintentionally, you should praise God, thank Him, and realize that He chose you exclusively for that, and you liked it. He has been one of the means of God’s Blessings descending upon you. You should only wish him well since the means of desension of Blessings are themselves Blessings wherever they be, even if unintentionally. And there is no power but in God.

48 حق من سرك الله به وعلى يديه

وَأمّا حَقُّ مَنْ سَرَّكَ اللهُ بهِ وَعلَى يَدَيهِ، فَـــــــــــــإنْ كَانَ تَعَمَّدَهَا لَكَ حَمِدْتَ اللهَ أَوّلاً ثُــــــــمَّ شَكَرْتَهُ عَلَى ذلِكَ بقَدْرِهِ فِي مَوْضِـــــــــــعِ الجَزَاءِ وَكَافَأتَهُ عَلَى فَضْــــــــــــــــلِ الابْتِدَاءِ وَأَرْصَــــــــــــــدْتَ لَهُ الْمُكَافَأَةَ، وَإنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ تَعَمَّدَهَا حَمِدْتَ اللهَ وَشَكَرتَهُ وعَلِمْتَ أنَّهُ مِنْهُ، تَوَحَّدَكَ بهَا وأَحْبَبتَ هذا إذ كَانَ سَبَباً مِنْ أَسْبَاب نِعَـــــــمِ اللهِ عَلَيْكَ وَترْجُو لَهُ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ خَيرًا، فإنَّ أَسْبَابَ النِّعَمِ بَرَكَةٌ حَيثُ مَا كَانتْ وَإنْ كَانَ لَمْ يَتَعَمَّدَ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of him who wrongs you whether verbally or physically is that it is more appropriate for you to pardon him if it was done intentionally. This would eliminate bad feelings and is the polite way to treat most such people. Indeed God says: “But indeed if any do help and defend themselves after a wrong (done) to them, against such there is no blame. The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrongdoing and insolently transgress beyond bounds throughout the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a Penalty grievous. But indeed if any show patience and forgive, that would truly be an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs.”

The Almighty the High also says: “And if ye do catch them out, catch them out no worse than they catch you out. But if ye show patience, that is indeed the best (course) for those who are patient.” This is so if it was intentional. But if he who wrongs you has done it unintentionally, then you should not oppress him by intentionally insisting on retaliation, lest you would be punishing him intentionally for what he has done unintentionally. You should also be friendly with him and treat him as gently as you can. And there is no power but in God.

49 حق من ساءك القضاء على يديه بقول أو فعل

وَأمّــــــا حَقُّ مَنْ سَاءَكَ القَضَاءُ عَلَى يَدَيهِ بقَوْلٍ أَوْ فِعْلٍ فَإنْ كَانَ تَعَمَّدَهَا كَانَ العَفْوُ أَوْلَى بكَ لِمَا فِيهِ لَهُ مِن القَمْعِ وَحُسْنَ الأَدَب مَعَ كَثِيرِ أَمْثالِهِ مِنَ الخَلْقِ، فإنَّ اللهَ يَقُولُ {وَلَمَنِ انتَصَرَ بَعْــــــــــــدَ ظُلْمِهِ فَأُولئِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ سَبيلٍٍ. إنمَّا السّبيلُ عَلى الَّذين يظْلِمونَ النَّاسَ ويَبغونَ في الأرْضِ بغَيرِ الحَقِّ، أُولئِكَ لهُم عَذابٌ أليِمٌ. وَلمَنْ صَبَرَ وَغَفَرَ إنَّ ذلِكَ لََمِنْ عَزْمِ الأُمُورِ}

وَقَــــــــــــــــــالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ {وَإنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوا بمِثلِ مَــــــــــــــا عُوقِبتُمْ به وَلَئِنْ صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِلصَّابرِينَ} هَـــــــــذا فِي الْعَمْدِ فَإنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَمْدًا لَمْ تَظْلِمْهُ بتَعَمُّدِ الانتِصَارِ مِنْهُ فَتَكُونَ قَدْ كَافَأتَهُ فِي تَعَمُّــدٍ عَلَى خَطَــــــــــــــــأٍ. وَرَفِقْتَ بهِ وَرَدَدتَهُ بأَلْطَفِ مَا تقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ. ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.


And the right of the people of your creed is that you should whole-heartedly provide safety for them, and gently show them mercy, and treat their wrong-doers with patience, and treat them with friendliness, and seek their welfare, and thank those of them who do good to you and to themselves. Their doing good to themselves is considered to be the same as doing good to you. This is because (by so doing) they have not bothered you and have not put you to any trouble. Then you should pray for all of them, and back all of them up with your support. And you should respect each one of them as he deserves: their old men hold the position of your fathers, and their children hold the position of your children, and their youths hold the position of your brothers. You should gently and compassionately care for those of them who come to you. And you should treat your brethren as brothers deserve to be treated.

50 حق أهل ملتك عامة

وَأمّــــــــــا حَقُّ أَهْلِ مِلَّتِكَ عَامَّةً فَإضْـــــــــــمَارُ السَّلامَةِ وَنشْرِ جَنَــــــــــــــــاحِ الرَّحْمَةِ وَالرِّفْقِ بمُسِيئِهــــــــــــــــــــِمْ وَتأَلُّفُهُمْ وَاسْتِصْلاحُهُمْ وَشُكْرُ مُحْسِنِهِمْ إلَى نفْسِهِ وَإلَيْكَ، فَإنَّ إحْسَانهُ إلَى نفْسِهِ إحْسَانهُ إلَيكَ إذا كَفَّ عَنْكَ أَذاهُ وَكَفَاكَ مَئونتَهُ وَحَبَسَ عَنكَ نفْسَهُ فَعَمِّهِمْ جَمِيعًا بدَعْوَتِكَ وَانصُرْهُمْ جَمِيعـاً بنُصْرَتِكَ وَأَنزَلتَهُمْ جَمِيعـــــــــــــــاً مِنْكَ مَنَـــــــــــازِلَهُمْ، كَبيرَهُمْ بمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَالِـــــــــــدِ وَصَغِيرَهُمْ

بمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَلَدِ وَأَوْسَـــــــــــــطَهُمْ بمَنْزِلَةِ الأَخِ. فَمَـنْ أَتـــــــــــــــاكَ تَعَاهَدْتَه بلُطْفٍ وَرَحْمَةٍ. وَصِلْ أَخَاكَ بمَا يَجِبُ لِلأَخِ عَلَى أَخِيهِ.


And the right of those under the protection of Islam is that you should accept from them what God has accepted from them, and fulfill what God has established for them under His protection and covenant, and entrust them to Him in what they are required to carry out, and are obliged to do. And you should judge among them with the judgments of God that He commanded for you regarding the conditions of dealing with them, and do not wrong them as long as they honor God’s covenant and fulfill their pledge. And the pledge of the Prophet, may God’s peace be upon him and his household, is a barrier since it is reported that he said: “I am the adversary of whoever oppresses one who has a treaty.” Therefore fear God. And there is no power but in God.

51 حق أهل الذمة

وَأمّــــــــــــــــــــــا حَقُّ أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ فَالحُكْمُ فِيهِـــــمْ أَنْ تَقبَلَ مِنْهُمْ مَا قَبِلَ اللهُ، وَتَفِي بمَا جَعَلَ اللهُ لَهُمْ مِنْ ذِمَّتِهِ وَعَهْدِهِ وَتكِلُهُمْ إلَيهِ فِيمَا طَلبُوا مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِــــــــــــــمْ وَأُجْبرُِوا عَلَيْهِ وَتحْكُمَ فِيهِمْ بمَـــــــــــــــــا حَكَمَ اللهُ بهِ عَلَى نفْسِكَ فِيمَا جَرَى بَيْنَكَ [وَبيْنَهمْ] مِنْ مُعَامَلَةٍ وَلْيَكُنْ بَينَكَ وَبيْنَ ظُلْمِهِمْ مِنْ رِعَايَةِ ذِمَّةِ اللَّهِ وَالْوَفَاءِ بعَهْــــــــــــــدِهِ وَعَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ – حَائِلٌ فَإنَّهُ بَلَغَنَا أنَّهُ قَالَ “مَنْ ظَلَمَ مُعَاهِـــدًا كُنْتُ خَصْمَهُ” فَاتَّقِ اللَّهَ. ولا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ.

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