Date :Monday, April 1st, 2019 | Time : 14:29 |ID: 90330 | Print

Fighting the Aggression (Part-II): Commentary of the Quran (Chapter 2:191-193)By: Mohammad Sobhanie

Commentary of the Quran (Chapter 2:191-193)

By: Mohammad Sobhanie

Fighting the Aggression (Part-II)

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ ۖ فَإِن قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿١٩١﴾ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿١٩٢﴾ وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّـهِ ۖ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿١٩٣

2:191 And kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from wherever they drove you out, and al-fit’natu is worse than the killing. And do not fight them near Al-Masjid Al-Haraam unless they fight you in it.

2:192 Then if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the reward of the disbelievers. Then if they cease, then indeed, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

2:193 And fight against them until there is not fitnatun and becomes the religion for Allah. Then if they cease then let there be no hostility except against the oppressors.

Commentary:  After migration of the Prophet (SAWA) from Mecca to Medina, disbelievers of Mecca continued their hostilities towards the Prophet and waged many wars against him. In light of these hostilities, the verses 2:190 instructed the Prophet to fight back in the way of Allah with those who were waging war against him (وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ), which was discussed earlier.

The next verse explicitly says: “kill them wherever you find them”, (وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ) and “Drive them out from wherever (Mecca) that they drove you out” (وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ). Since “al-fit’natu” [Arabic, (الْفِتْنَةُ)] is worse than the war (وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ). That is to say the inflicted pain from submission to injustice, coercion and tyranny is worse than the hardship of war. The word “al-fit’natu” [Arabic: (الْفِتْنَةُ)] comes from the word “fat’n” [Arabic: (فَتْن)] and it means purifying gold by melting at 1,064°C. Impurities in molten gold rise to the surface and are then removed after the gold cools. The word “al-fit’natu” [Arabic: (الْفِتْنَةُ)] has various connotations in the Quran such as trial and tribulation, deception and seduction, torment and punishment, and falling into error and going astray, see the Appendix for related verses. In each of these cases, humans are placed under excruciating pain and stresses as gold is placed under melting temperature. In the above verses the word “al-fit’natu” [Arabic: (الْفِتْنَةُ)] refers to the injustices, coercion and oppression that the disbelievers exerted on believers.

The verse advises believers to respect the sanctity of Masjid Al-Haraam and directs them to refrain from fighting near it unless disbelievers initiate fighting there (وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ). The verse emphasis that should the idolaters and polytheists of Mecca initiate fighting near Masjid Al-Haraam, then the believers should fight them back; such is the reward for disbelievers (فَإِن قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ). But “If they cease (war and bloodshed, likewise, you should stop fighting against them). Indeed, Allah (is) Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful” (فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ).

The verses of jihad as warfare begin with the verse 2:190 which states: “Fight…against those who wage war against you” (وَقَاتِلُوا …. الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ) and concludes with verse 2:193 which states: “And fight (against) them until there is no fitnatun” (وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ). Perhaps, “fitnatun” (فِتْنَةٌ) refers to the war and bloodshed that disbelievers imposed on the Prophet. Hence, the verse directs the Prophet to fight them back until the roots of war, hostility, coercion and oppression are eradicated (وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ). So, people could follow, without fear and intimidation, the religion of Allah (SWT), (وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّـهِ). However, if they cease war, bloodshed and hostility (فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا), then let there be no hostility against them (فَلَا عُدْوَانَ), except against the oppressors (إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ).

The word “al-fit’natu” [Arabic: (الْفِتْنَةُ)] has various connotations in the Quran. For instance, it implies:

  1. To test and to try [(أَحَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَن يُتْرَكُوا أَن يَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَهُمْ لَا يُفْتَنُونَ), Al-Ankabut 29:2],
  2. To tempt, seduce and deceive [(يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ), Al-Araf 7:27],
  3. To torment, to punish [(يَوْمَ هُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ يُفْتَنُونَ ﴿١٣﴾ ذُوقُوا فِتْنَتَكُمْ هَـٰذَا الَّذِي كُنتُم بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ ﴿١٤﴾), Adh-Dhariyat51:13-14],
  4. To put in error, to mislead, [(….وَمَن يُرِدِ اللَّـهُ فِتْنَتَهُ فَلَن تَمْلِكَ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّـهِ شَيْئًا), Al-Maida 5:41]

Word-for-Word Translation:

2: 191 [وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ] and kill them [حَيْثُ] whenever [ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ] you find them [وَأَخْرِجُوهُم] and drive them out [مِّنْ] from [حَيْثُ]whenever [أَخْرَجُوكُمْ] they drove you out [وَالْفِتْنَةُ] and the oppression [أَشَدُّ] is worse [مِنَ] than [الْقَتْلِ] the killing. [وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ] And do not fight them [عِندَ] near [الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ] the sacred Masjed [حَتَّىٰ] until [يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ] they fight you [فِيهِ] in it. [فَإِن] Then if [قَاتَلُوكُمْ] they fight you [فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ] then kill them [كَذَٰلِكَ] such is [جَزَاءُ] the reward [الْكَافِرِينَ] of disbeliever.

2:192 [فَإِنِ] Then if [انتَهَوْا] they cease [فَإِنَّ] then indeed [اللَّـهَ] Allah [غَفُورٌ] is oft-forgiving [رَّحِيمٌ] most merciful.

2:193 [وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ] And fight against them [حَتَّىٰ] until [لَا تَكُونَ] there is not [فِتْنَةٌ] oppression, [وَيَكُونَ] and becomes [الدِّينُ] the religion [لِلَّـهِ] for Allah. [فَإِنِ] Then if [انتَهَوْا] they cease [فَلَا] then let there be no [عُدْوَانَ] hostility [إِلَّا] except [عَلَى] against [الظَّالِمِينَ] oppressors.




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