Quran explicitly stipulates that existential essence of Adam and Eve was rooted in a similar source which Quran names “single soul”. The holy Quran states,” He created you from a single soul, then made from it its mate”(1)
As regards the creation of Adam`s corpus explicit valid narrations as well as the verses of the holy Quran stipulate that he was created from mud, soil and foul dust but concerning her highness Eve the holy Quran does not refer any narration. However, there are three narrations about it:
First narration follows Torah`s narration which believes Eve was created from left rib of Adam. In a narration related by some the people of the book who had submitted to Islam,” God caused a deep asleep fall upon man then took his left rib and filled flesh in its stead while Adam was still asleep God created his wife Eve from his own rib.”
In Torah we read,” God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept and he took one of his ribs and he closed up the flesh at the place. The Lord God fashioned into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man. The man said,” This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman because she was taken out of man.”
The second class of narrations deny emphatically that woman`s creation out of man`s left rib and cast doubt on it.
In a book called’ من لايحضره الفقيه’, which is among the reliable Shiite books of narrations, a companion of Imam Sadiq(a`) relates that” Zararah said someone asked Imam Sadiq(a`)about the quality of Eve`s creation one day and stated some people believed she was created from man`s left rib by God. Imam stated,’ God is above such accounts. God is immaculate from such attributions. Does he who says such believe that God was not able to create man`s wife from other than his rib so that cavilers quibble that some elements of man married some other elements of him? Afterwards, he stated God created man from dust and mud and ordered the angels to bow down before him. Then, he caused a deep sleep to fall upon him and created Eve as an independent phenomenal creature. “
The third category of narrations are those claiming God created Eve from the surplus of man`s dust.
Another narration rebuts the first theory and emphasizes Eve`s creation from the surplus of man`s dust.
“Omar the son of Abi Meqdam relates, ‘I asked Imam Baqir(a`)what God, the Exalted, created Eve from. He asked people`s opinion regarding this. I answered it was reputed that God created Eve from man`s ribs. ‘They lie’, said he. He continued,’ Was God unable to create her from other than man`s ribs? “May my life be for you’, what did God create Eve from then?” He told me he had been informed by his predecessors whom were told by their fathers that the holy Prophet told God plucked off a handful of dust and mixed it to create man. Then, He created Eve from the surplus of man`s dust.
Thereafter, the theory of Eve`s creation from man`s ribs is annulled as it was denied explicitly by other two categories of narrations. Second, some of the relaters of this narration were among the people of the book who were allegedly accused of distorting the narrations of Imams of Guidance (a`) by entering Torah and Bible superstitions. Thus, their narrations are not valid.
The second category of narrations enjoys a strong chain of transmissions. They are also in accordance with the third category. Under any circumstances, the creation of Eve from man`s left rib is refuted. As the Holy Quran states, the essence of both man and woman is genuinely the same. The source of man`s genesis is soil and dust. (2)
In fact, what brings about the ontological perfection is the same essence of creation common in both of man and woman (3), which makes man and woman superior to all beings. What grants virtue to man and woman is God-wariness of man and woman both, the prerequisites of it and talents required to be God-wary have been bestowed by God upon them.(4)
1-Surat al-Zumar(39), verse 6
2-Surat al-Safat(37), verse11
3-Surat al-Isra(17), verse 70
4-Surat al-Hujurat(49), verse 13
Source: Husain-I, Seyed Ibrahim, Shakhsiat ve Huquqe Zan, Supreme Leadership Institution Branch in Universities
Translation by: AhlulBayt News Agency (a.s) (Abna.ir)