Seyyd Abd al Hussein Sharaf al Deen al Ameli narrated, that groups of Historians quoted in al Tabary and Ibn al Atheer” that Muawia sent al Imam al Hassan a blank message with signature at the bottom and told him to put down his conditions. ( al Tabary part 6 p. 93) Ibn al Atheer(part 3 p.162).
After that these references ignored the details of al Imam Conditions. So we collected these details to provide the reader with the information about this treaty:
1-That Muawia must use the way of the Prophet to lead the nation.
2-The leadership must be to al Imam al Hassan after Muawia or to al Hussein and not to anyone else.
3-Stop insulting al Imam Ali.
4-The House of money in al Kufa cannot be under the control of Muawia.
5-All people; whether in Iraq, Sham (Syria), Hejaz (KSA) and Yemen, black and red. Also the followers of al Imam Ali must feel in safe conditions, in their home, and their children, wives and properties. Al Imam al Hassan must feel safe and his brother al Hussein and all their relatives. This was during Jummad the first 41 AH.
Seyyd Abd al Hussein Sharaf al Deen said that the aim of this treaty according to Muawia is to control to all properties, and al Imam was not ready to do the same to fulfill Muawia’s dream, al Imam’s aim is to keep the Shiite save from the wrong of Muawia and to get the role after Muawia’s death.
Seyyd Abd al Hussein Sharaf al Deen concluded these saying of al Imam al Hassan to his Shiite:
1-What I did is the best for my Shiite.
2-To Basheer al Hamadani a head in al Kufa” My aim from the treaty is to keep you away from murdering” (al Daniwri p. 203)
3-His speech after the treaty al Imam said: “O, people, Allah gives you the right way by our Prophet, and saves your life with me I’ve contracted a treaty with Muawia, it is no longer will be.” (Al Yaqobi, part 2, p. 192)
Muawia’s Declaration after the Treaty:
1-Narrated by Ibn Katheer, that Muawia said: we agree the treaty as a controlling. (Tareikh in Katheer, part 6, p. 220)
2-In al Nakhila he said: I fought you not to pray, fast, pilgrimage or to do Zakat, but to control upon you and this is from Allah. What I promise al Hassan to do is under my feet. (Behar al Anwar, 44/48)
The treaty of al Imam al Hassan was a great point showed the Muslims the evilness of Muawia. The case of al Imam al Hussein is clear to people more than al Imam al Hassan’s, which was a base to al Taf.
Current look to the Treaty
Sayyd Sami al Badry said that this treaty created two negative sides to the readers about the history of Ahl Albayt, PBUT, in hand and the Islamic history in Iraq in other hand.
1-The Iraqis at the time of Imam Ali, al Hassan and al Hussein, AS, did not have one way of thinking, they were no able to establish an independent state as people of Sham did, moreover they wanted to hand al Imam al Hassan to Muawia, so al Imam al Hassan make this treaty.
2-The second negative side is that al Imam al Hassan became as unloved person, like the orientalists where most of them have a bad negative toward al Imam al Hassan, AS, since he gave the leadership so as to grant his dreams. While the faithful cannot use this bad way of thinking about al Imam al Hassan, AS.
Sulh al Imam al Hassan (al Hassan’s Treaty) to al Sheikh Radhy al Yassin, is of nice books dealt with the treaty, provided by al Sayyd Abd al Hussein Sharaf al Deen.
We can see that al Imam al Hassan was with two choices:
First: According to Muawia’s plan; that al Imam al Hassan lead the Eastern part of the nation and Muawia the Western part. It was a suggestion by Muawia during the time of al Imam Ali, AS.
Second: Use the way of war and the army of al Imam al Hassan was ready to do what al Imam want them to do.
Al Imam al Hassan refused the first, since there will be no unity in the Islamic nation, also the hate to al Imam Ali, AS, in Al Sham. Also refused the second, he felt that fighting cannot solve the problem, so it is better to use the peace way.
Muawia surprised by refusing al Imam al Hassan this suggestions, so al Imam put Iraq leadership to Muawia, where the constitution of the nation done by al Imam al Hassan, AS; depending on Holy Quran and Sunna Sharifa, use not the way of al Sheikheen( the first two Caliphs after the Prophet) also the leadership of the nation after Muawia to al Imam al Hassan,AS, or his brother al Hussein,AS. The positive points that al Imam grant are from al Hedibia Treaty during the time of the Prophet, PBUH.
The Results of the Treaty:
1- Showed to people of Al Sham that Muawia wanted the leadership in anyway.
2-Showed that al Imam Ali and his son al Hassan are Imams have to follow.
3-United the nation, Iraqis and people of al Sham, where they found al Imam Ali and his household as the leader of the nation.
4-Showed great role of the Islamic nation with enemies, especially the East Romans.
5-Saved al Kufa from inside enemy by al Khwarj (a group of people they claimed that the leadership is not to al Imam Ali or other person).
Everyone feels in save conditions after the contract of the treaty, where the fame of al Imam al Hassan became clear to the people of Al Sham, he became as the religion Man of the nation. After ten years Muawia betrayed al Imam al Hassan when he killed him by poison and used the worst way with the Iraqi Shiite.
About the accusing narrations to the Shiite, al Badry declared:
The second phase of Muawia’s controlling, he change the whole saying of the Prophet, PBUH, that al Imam Ali was not great person, for a long time he did his best to establish a base that Ali, AS, use the bad way of life, so people insulted al Imam Ali, AS, everywhere. The Shiite of Iraq, especially in Kufa faced the wrong of Muawia in every field of their life too.
When the Abbasid led the Islamic nation many bad or Muawia’s sayings about al Imam Ali, AS, have been disappeared, since the new leadership claimed to use the way of Ahl Albyat, PBUT, and the tragedy of al Imam al Hussein, AS, but also some of these sayings remained such as that a Imam Ali did not pray, did not read the Holy Quran, also that Ali, AS, stole where the Prophet, PBUH, cut his hand, as well as that the saying that Ali is as Aaron with Moses is not true, as Qaroon with Moses is the truth.
What Umayyad did, the Abbasid thought to do since they were facing two sides:
First: Al Hassaneen, they have the right to control for two reasons:
1-They are related to al Imam al Hassan, the one who keep the people saved.
2-Abbasid promised earlier the leader of al Hassaneen, Muhammad bin Abd Allah bin al Hassan that the leadership will be to him.
Second: The speared of al Imam al Sadiq authority (religious one) that the leadership of the nation is to al Imam Ali and his household according to the Prophet, PBUH.
So Abbasid claimed:
1-That al Imam al Hassan is a black spot in al Hassaneen history since he sold the leadership to Muawia to fulfill his dreams.
2-That al Kufa has a bad history since they asked al Hussein to come then they murdered him, where they insulted by Yazeed.
3-Shiite also have a bad history since they led by Jewish man converted during Othman time (Abd Allah bin Saba).
Al Imam al Sadiq authority also faced the same in two sides: depending on Malek bin Anas authority instead of al Imam al Sadiq, and his Students as judges and preachers. Also they claimed that the narrations of al Imam al Sadiq are not valid and the followers of al Imam faced the wrong of Abbasid, where the son of al Imam, Imam al Kazem jailed.