Iamam Hassan (A.S): from birth to martyrdom / Imamat and peace treaty

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Shafaqna (International Shia News Agency)

Iamam Hassan (A.S): from birth to martyrdom / Imamat and peace treaty

 

Personal Information:

He is the second Imam of the twelve infallible imams:

His name: Hassan bin Ali bin Abi Talib, peace be upon him.

Surnames: Mujtaba.

Nickname: Abu Muhammad.

Place of birth: Medina.

Date of birth: 15 Ramadan in the third year of migration.

Father’s Name: Ali bin Abi Talib, peace be upon him.

Mother’s Name: Fatima Zahra, peace be upon her.

Writing on Ring: Glory to God.

Age: 47 years old.

Period of Imamate: 10 years.

Number of boys: 8.

Girls: 7.

Date of death: 7 Safar 50 AH.

Cause of death: killed with poison, which his wife gave him, Juda, by order of Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan for a large amount of money, and promised to a wife to his son Yazeed.

Burial place: Medina-Baqee.

Date of demolition of his holy shrine: 8 Shawwal 1344 AH.

 

Birth:

Imam Hassan, AS, born in al Medina in 15 Ramadan 3AH, where brought by his mother, Fatima, AS, to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, on the seventh day of his birth in a silk rag from Paradise, Gabriel,AS, was revealed to the Prophet, PBUH, so he named him Hassan, and sacrificed a ram (1).

 

Sheikh Tusi has narrated in Amalih “a book”: Ali Bin Al-Hussein (peace be upon him), said: that Asma bint Eumas told me, when al Hassan was born (peace be upon him) the Prophet ( may Allah bless him and his family) said, ‘O Asma give me my son, she said: so I gave him with a yellow rag, where he threw it and said, do not use color, then called on the white one, After that he call to pray in his right ear, and his left ear, and said to Ali (peace be upon him) have you named him? Al Imam said: not yet, where Gabriel came and said: Allah (the Almighty) says you peace and says to you, O Muhammad, Ali with you like Aaron with Moses, except there is no prophet after you, so call your son the name of Aaron’s Son. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), O Gabriel, and what’s son of Aaron name? Gabriel said: Shubar he said, and what Shubar, said: Hassan. So he called him Hassan (2).

 

 

Margin

____________

1 – Ershad- Sheikh al Mufeed / Imam after prince of faithful / p. 272.

2 – Amaly of al Tussy/ part 1 / p. 417.

 

Characteristics and worship:

First, Character

Imam Hassan, peace be upon him, was like the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, morally and a like.

Muammar quoted, al-Zuhri quoted, Anas bin Malik said, there is no one like the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, as al Hassan bin Ali, peace be upon them (1).

 

Al-Sheikh Saduq in Khusal that Fatima, peace be upon her, said: ‘O Messenger of Allah these are your sons so you can provide them something, Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family: I gave al Hassan prestige, and al Hussein generosity and my courage (2 ).

 

He was with white with reddish skin, black-eyed, nice cheeks, bushy beard, frizzy hair, his neck like silver, neither long nor short.

Wasel bin Ata said: Al-Hasan bin Ali, AS, had the prophets’ shape and the splendor of the Kings.

He was so humble, one day he saw poor men were eating on the ground, and they said to him: «Come, O son of the Messenger of Allah to lunch!» he said: «God does not love the proud». So he ate with them, then invited them to his hospitality and feed them (3).

 

Second, worship

He was the best of the people in worshiping at his time, care not in life. He gained

Twenty-five walked pilgrimages.

If the death mentioned, grave, judgment day, the path, he cried. He was not passing any conditions, but remembrance Allah Almighty (4).

Margin

___________

1 – Ershad – Sheikh Mufeed / p. 272.

2 – Khusal – Sheikh Saduq / p. 86 / H 123.

3 – reconciliation of Hassan peace be upon him – by Abdul Hussain Sharaf al-Din / Section I / p. 26.

4 – Hassan reconciliation peace be upon him – by Abdul Hussain Sharaf al-Din / Section I / p. 27.

Proof of his Imamate:

There are plenty of evidences to imamate of al Imam al Hassan (AS), but it is sufficient to mention what the Prophet, PBUT, and Ameer al Mumenien “Prince of faithful”.

Alkhazaz narrated from Abu Dhar al-Ghafari said: I entered to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, when he was ill, which caused his death, he said: that Fatima is from me the one harm her done the same for me, she is the lady of the world, her husband is the best, and her two sons al Hassan and al Hussein are the leader of heaven young. Will come from the core of Hussein, nine infallible imams doing the justice, and al Mahdi is from them “the guide of the nation to the right way”.

I said: O Messenger of Allah, how many imams are after you? He said the number of captains of children of Israel (1).

The imamate of al Imam al Hassan can be provided from al Kulayni texts about al Imam Ali, AS, to his son al Hassan, AS:

1- Ali bin Ibrahim narrated , his father quoted, Hamada bin Esa quoted, Ibrahim bin Emar al Yamani, and Emar bin Athina quoted, Aban quoted, Saleem bin Qeis said ” I’ve witnessed the will of al Imam Ali about his son al Hassan with presence al Hussein and Muhammad and all his children and Shiite and the household, then gave him his sword and books and said, the Prophet, PBUH, told me that, the same what he did to me, then to your brother al Hussein, after that he ask al Hussein to use the same to his son, Ali bin al Hussein, then hold the hand of Ali, son of al Hussein, and told him to do what he recently saw to your son Muhammad al Baqir, this was from the great Prophet, Muhammad, PBUH.

2- Ali bin Ibrahim narrated, his father quoted, Abi Emeir quoted, Abd al Samed bin Basheer quoted, Abi al Jarwd quoted, Abi Jafer, AS, said: that Imam Ali before his death said to al Hassan come to tell you a secret from your grandmother, the Prophet, PBUH, and so he told him.

3-Many companions narrated, Ahmad bin Muhammad quoted, Ali bin al Hakem quoted, Saif bin Emeir quoted, Abi Baker al Hathrami said: Ajlah, Salma bin Kaheil, Dawd bin abi Yazeed and Zaid al Yamani quoted, that Shahar bin Hawshab said that when Ali, AS, moved to Kufa, he handed his books and will to Umm Salama, and when the al Imam al Hassan retured she Gave them to him.

4- Ahmad bin Muhammad narrated, Ali bin al Hakem quoted, Saif quoted, Abi Baker quoted, Abi Abd Allah said that when Ali, AS, moved to Kufa, he handed his books and will to Umm Salama, and when the al Imam al Hassan retured she Gave them to him.

5- Many companions narrated, Ahmad bin Muhammad quoted, Hussein bin Saeed quoted, Hamad bin Esa quoted, Emro bin Shamr quoted, Jaber quoted, that Abi Jafer said: the will of Ali, AS, was to al Imam al Hassan with the presence of al Hussein and Muhammad, all his children and the head of the Shiite, then gave him his sword and books and said, the Prophet, PBUH, told me that, the same what he did to me, then to your brother al Hussein, after that he ask al Hussein to use the same to his son, Ali bin al Hussein, then hold the hand of Ali, son of al Hussein, and told him to do what he recently saw to your son Muhammad al Baqir, this was from the great Prophet, Muhammad, PBUH. Then told al Hassan you are the Waly after me you can forgive or kill the one that injured me after my death.

6-Hussein bin al Hassan al Hassani and Muhammad bin al Hassan narrated, Ibrahim bin Eshaq al Ahmer said: when Ali, AS, injured and the doctors asked him to present his will, he said: thanks Allah we use His way there is no God but Allah, every man will face his destiny, death, so you can use the right way of Allah and the Prophet, PBUH, last days I were your friend, today I am a sample for you and tomorrow I will leave, then told al Hassan hit him with one sword not more.

7-Muhammad bin Yahya narrated, Ali bin al Hussein quoted, Ali bin Ibrahim al Aqely said: when Ibn Muljem hit al Imam Ali, As, he said to al Hassan kill Ibn Muljem and burn him in al Kunasa, which is valley of Hell.(2)

Margin

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1-Behar al Anwar/ part36/ p. 288

2-al Kafi- al Sheikh al Kuleiny/part1/ al Heja book/ p. 297

His Children:

According to al Sheikh al Mufeed, that children of Imam al Hassan were 15 boys and girls. The Boys are:

1-Zaid, his mother is Umm Basheer, daughter ofAbi Maswd Eoqba bin Emrw bin Thalaba al Khazrajia.

2-Hassan bin al Hassan, his mother is Khula daughter of Manzwr al Fazaria.

3-Emrw

4-al Qaseem

5-Abd Allah

6-Abd al Rehman

7-Al Hussein called al Athram, his mother is Umm Eshaq, daughter of Talha bin Ebeid Allah al Tememi.

8-Talha, his mother is Umm Eshaq, daughter of Talha bin Ebeid Allah al Tememi.

The Girls are:

Umm al Hassan, Umm al Hussein, their mother is Umm Basheer, daughter ofAbi Maswd Eoqba bin Emrw bin Thalaba al Khazrajia, and Fatima, her mother is Umm Eshaq daughter of Talha, Umm Abd Allah, Fatima, Umm Salama and Ruqia.

 

Some Conditions to his Children:

Zaid was generous, kind man, praised by many poets at his time, many people wanted granting his help. Omar bin Abd al Aziz mentioned in his book about Zaid; He was from the honor of bani Hashim, died with 90 years old.

 

Al Hassan bin al Hassan was present with his uncle al Hussein in al Taf tragedy, and after the murder of al Imam, al Hassan the son handed by Asma’a bin Khareja from other captured people, he prevent anyone to touch him since he was his uncle (mother side) then he healed him from wounds. His uncle al Hussein AS chose his daughter, Fatima as a wife to al Hassan, died with 35 years. While Omro, al Qaseem, and Aba Allah were died in al Taf battle. Abd al Rehman passed the life in pilgrimage with his uncle al Hussein AS. Talha was generous.

 

His speech after his father death:

In al Ershad book al Sheikh al Muffed narrated, that when al Imam Ali passed, al Imam al Hassan preached the people and the companions paid him allegiance.

Abu Mukhnef narrated, Ashath bin Sawar quoted, Abi Eshaq and other said, morning after the death of al Imam Ali, al Hassan preached the people and said: Today died one that was the best in work after and before, he protected the Prophet, PBUH, he was the holder of banner of the Prophet, PBUH, where Gabriel on his right and Mikael on his left, he won all the battle he shared as a leader. He passed the same time where Jesus moved to Heaven and Ywsha bin Noon, trustee of Moses.

Al Imam al Hassan then said I am from a house which is from the best houses have ever found, where Allah said: “I do not ask you any recompense except your love for being my close relatives. He that does a good deed shall be repaid many times over”.

 

After that Abd Allah bin Abbas stand and said: O, people this is the Prophet’s Son and the trustee of your Imam so pay him allegiance and the people did. This was in 21 Ramadan 46 AH. (1)

 

Margin

___________

1-Al Ershad, Al Sheikh al Mufeed, p.273

 

Peace treaty:

Seyyd Abd al Hussein Sharaf al Deen al Ameli narrated, that groups of Historians quoted in al Tabary and Ibn al Atheer” that Muawia sent al Imam al Hassan a blank message with signature at the bottom and told him to put down his conditions. ( al Tabary part 6 p. 93) Ibn al Atheer(part 3 p.162).

After that these references ignored the details of al Imam Conditions. So we collected these details to provide the reader with the information about this treaty:

1-That Muawia must use the way of the Prophet to lead the nation.

2-The leadership must be to al Imam al Hassan after Muawia or to al Hussein and not to anyone else.

3-Stop insulting al Imam Ali.

4-The House of money in al Kufa cannot be under the control of Muawia.

5-All people; whether in Iraq, Sham (Syria), Hejaz (KSA) and Yemen, black and red. Also the followers of al Imam Ali must feel in safe conditions, in their home, and their children, wives and properties. Al Imam al Hassan must feel safe and his brother al Hussein and all their relatives. This was during Jummad the first 41 AH.

Seyyd Abd al Hussein Sharaf al Deen said that the aim of this treaty according to Muawia is to control to all properties, and al Imam was not ready to do the same to fulfill Muawia’s dream, al Imam’s aim is to keep the Shiite save from the wrong of Muawia and to get the role after Muawia’s death.

Seyyd Abd al Hussein Sharaf al Deen concluded these saying of al Imam al Hassan to his Shiite:

1-What I did is the best for my Shiite.

2-To Basheer al Hamadani a head in al Kufa” My aim from the treaty is to keep you away from murdering” (al Daniwri p. 203)

3-His speech after the treaty al Imam said: “O, people, Allah gives you the right way by our Prophet, and saves your life with me I’ve contracted a treaty with Muawia, it is no longer will be.” (Al Yaqobi, part 2, p. 192)

 

Muawia’s Declaration after the Treaty:

1-Narrated by Ibn Katheer, that Muawia said: we agree the treaty as a controlling. (Tareikh in Katheer, part 6, p. 220)

2-In al Nakhila he said: I fought you not to pray, fast, pilgrimage or to do Zakat, but to control upon you and this is from Allah. What I promise al Hassan to do is under my feet. (Behar al Anwar, 44/48)

The treaty of al Imam al Hassan was a great point showed the Muslims the evilness of Muawia. The case of al Imam al Hussein is clear to people more than al Imam al Hassan’s, which was a base to al Taf.

 

Current look to the Treaty

Sayyd Sami al Badry said that this treaty created two negative sides to the readers about the history of Ahl Albayt, PBUT, in hand and the Islamic history in Iraq in other hand.

1-The Iraqis at the time of Imam Ali, al Hassan and al Hussein, AS, did not have one way of thinking, they were no able to establish an independent state as people of Sham did, moreover they wanted to hand al Imam al Hassan to Muawia, so al Imam al Hassan make this treaty.

2-The second negative side is that al Imam al Hassan became as unloved person, like the orientalists where most of them have a bad negative toward al Imam al Hassan, AS, since he gave the leadership so as to grant his dreams. While the faithful cannot use this bad way of thinking about al Imam al Hassan, AS.

 

Sulh al Imam al Hassan (al Hassan’s Treaty) to al Sheikh Radhy al Yassin, is of nice books dealt with the treaty, provided by al Sayyd Abd al Hussein Sharaf al Deen.

 

We can see that al Imam al Hassan was with two choices:

First: According to Muawia’s plan; that al Imam al Hassan lead the Eastern part of the nation and Muawia the Western part. It was a suggestion by Muawia during the time of al Imam Ali, AS.

Second: Use the way of war and the army of al Imam al Hassan was ready to do what al Imam want them to do.

Al Imam al Hassan refused the first, since there will be no unity in the Islamic nation, also the hate to al Imam Ali, AS, in Al Sham. Also refused the second, he felt that fighting cannot solve the problem, so it is better to use the peace way.

 

Muawia surprised by refusing al Imam al Hassan this suggestions, so al Imam put Iraq leadership to Muawia, where the constitution of the nation done by al Imam al Hassan, AS; depending on Holy Quran and Sunna Sharifa, use not the way of al Sheikheen( the first two Caliphs after the Prophet) also the leadership of the nation after Muawia to al Imam al Hassan,AS, or his brother al Hussein,AS. The positive points that al Imam grant are from al Hedibia Treaty during the time of the Prophet, PBUH.

 

The Results of the Treaty:

1- Showed to people of Al Sham that Muawia wanted the leadership in anyway.

2-Showed that al Imam Ali and his son al Hassan are Imams have to follow.

3-United the nation, Iraqis and people of al Sham, where they found al Imam Ali and his household as the leader of the nation.

4-Showed great role of the Islamic nation with enemies, especially the East Romans.

5-Saved al Kufa from inside enemy by al Khwarj (a group of people they claimed that the leadership is not to al Imam Ali or other person).

 

Everyone feels in save conditions after the contract of the treaty, where the fame of al Imam al Hassan became clear to the people of Al Sham, he became as the religion Man of the nation. After ten years Muawia betrayed al Imam al Hassan when he killed him by poison and used the worst way with the Iraqi Shiite.

 

About the accusing narrations to the Shiite, al Badry declared:

The second phase of Muawia’s controlling, he change the whole saying of the Prophet, PBUH, that al Imam Ali was not great person, for a long time he did his best to establish a base that Ali, AS, use the bad way of life, so people insulted al Imam Ali, AS, everywhere. The Shiite of Iraq, especially in Kufa faced the wrong of Muawia in every field of their life too.

 

When the Abbasid led the Islamic nation many bad or Muawia’s sayings about al Imam Ali, AS, have been disappeared, since the new leadership claimed to use the way of Ahl Albyat, PBUT, and the tragedy of al Imam al Hussein, AS, but also some of these sayings remained such as that a Imam Ali did not pray, did not read the Holy Quran, also that Ali, AS, stole where the Prophet, PBUH, cut his hand, as well as that the saying that Ali is as Aaron with Moses is not true, as Qaroon with Moses is the truth.

What Umayyad did, the Abbasid thought to do since they were facing two sides:

First: Al Hassaneen, they have the right to control for two reasons:

1-They are related to al Imam al Hassan, the one who keep the people saved.

2-Abbasid promised earlier the leader of al Hassaneen, Muhammad bin Abd Allah bin al Hassan that the leadership will be to him.

 

Second: The speared of al Imam al Sadiq authority (religious one) that the leadership of the nation is to al Imam Ali and his household according to the Prophet, PBUH.

 

So Abbasid claimed:

1-That al Imam al Hassan is a black spot in al Hassaneen history since he sold the leadership to Muawia to fulfill his dreams.

2-That al Kufa has a bad history since they asked al Hussein to come then they murdered him, where they insulted by Yazeed.

3-Shiite also have a bad history since they led by Jewish man converted during Othman time (Abd Allah bin Saba).

 

Al Imam al Sadiq authority also faced the same in two sides: depending on Malek bin Anas authority instead of al Imam al Sadiq, and his Students as judges and preachers. Also they claimed that the narrations of al Imam al Sadiq are not valid and the followers of al Imam faced the wrong of Abbasid, where the son of al Imam, Imam al Kazem jailed.

 

Reason of his death:

About the reason of al Imam al Hassan, AS, death al Sheikh al Mufeed in al Ershad book narrated: after the treaty with Muawia, al Imam al Hassan moved to al Medina, where he stayed home waiting the coming, after ten years as the head of the nation, Muawia wanted the leadership to his son Yazeed, so he planned to poison al Imam, AS, by using al Imam’s wife, Juda Bint al Ashath, Muawia promised her to marry Yazeed, also presented her 100,000 Dirham, so she poisoned al Imam, AS, where he stayed forty days then he passed during Saffar 50 AH with 48 years old. He buried by al Imam al Hussein, AS, in al Baqee. (1)

 

Also Esa bin Mahran narrated, Eubeid Allah bin Sabah quoted, Jurair quoted, that Mughyra said: Muawia promised Juda to be a wife to Yazeed by killinh al Imam al Hassan, AS, with 100,000 Dirham, then Muawia ignored what he promised, then she had married with one from Talha, where she insulted as a poisoned women.

Omar bin Eshaq had been narrated: I was with al Hassan and al Hussein, AS, at their home, where al Hassan went out and came and said I’ve poisoned and al Imam al Hussein asked him, who did that? Al Hassan replied, what do you want to do with him? To kill him? Allah Almighty will do the best. (2)

Al Sheikh Abbas al Qumi had narrated in his book, Muntaha al Amal: Some said that al Imam al Hassan passed in 7 of Saffar, and some said in 28 of Saffar 50 AH (3).

 

Margin

___________

1-Al Ershad, al Sheikh al Mufeed. P.278

2- Al Ershad, al Sheikh al Mufeed. P.279

3-Muntaha al Amal, Al Sheikh Abbas al Qumi. Part one. P.325

 

Burial:

Al Sheikh al Mufeed declared about the burial of al Imam al Hassan, AS, in al Baqee:

Before the death of al Imam al Hassan, AS, he called his brother, al Imam al Hussein, AS, and told him that he poisoned, which caused him losing his liver. Al Imam al Hassan, AS, said I knew who poisoned me, so after my death, shut my eyes, wash me, and move me to my grandfather’s grave, PBUH, then to my grandmother, Fatima bint Asad, and bury me there. Also told al Hussein, AS, that the people will think that you wants to bury me near the Prophet, PBUH, so please do not shed blood.

 

Al Imam al Hassan, AS, next will was about his family, children, also the wills that al Imam gained from his father, Imam Ali, AS.

When al Imam passed, his brother al Hussein, washed him and moved toward the grave of the Prophet, PBUH, where Umayyad gathered followed by Aisha saying: It is my home I do not want unloved one to be in, as well as Marwan saying: Othman had been buried faraway from al Medina and you want al Hassan bury with the Prophet, It cannot be, while I am holding my sword.

Ibn Abbas said to Marwan, Back O, Marwan, just we want to visit the Prophet’s PBUH grave, , the burial will be near his grandmother, Fatima, this is the will of al Imam al Hassan, AS, moreover we can bury him near the Prophet, PBUH, if al Imam wanted that. You said that you want to keep the Prophet’s house save, but you know who did the vise!

To Aisha he said; return home, one day with a mule and other with camel, to stand against the trustee of Allah, Ahl Albayt, PBUT, they will gain their right.

Then al Imam al Hussein said; for al Hassan sake I won’t kill you, then al Imam al Hassan, AS, buried near his grandmother, Fatima bint Asad bin Hashim bin Ad Munaf in al Baqee. (1)

 

 

Margin

___________

1 – Ershad – Sheikh Mufeed / p. 272.

2 – Khusal – Sheikh Saduq / p. 86 / H 123.

3 – reconciliation of Hassan peace be upon him – by Abdul Hussain Sharaf al-Din / Section I / p. 26.

4 – Hassan reconciliation peace be upon him – by Abdul Hussain Sharaf al-Din / Section I / p. 27.

 

Source: Alkafeel

www.shafaqna.com

 

 

 

 

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