SHAFAQNA- By: Shahid Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari
The previous lecture dealt with the question of locating the principal origin of Islamic ‘irfan, that is, whether there exists in the teachings of Islam and the lives of the Holy Prophet and the Imams a precedent that could have inspired a series of profound and subtle mystical ideas, on a theoretical level, and which could have prompted spiritual enthusiasm and mystical elation on a practical level. The answer to this question was seen to be positive. Now we will continue this discussion.
The genuine teachings of Islam and the lives of its spiritual leaders, so rich with spirituality and spiritual splendor, which have provided the inspiration for profound spirituality in the Islamic world, are not encompassed by that which is termed as ‘irfan or Sufism. However, it is beyond the scope of these lectures to discuss other parts of Islamic teachings that do not bear this name.
We will continue our discussion on the branch that is labeled as ‘irfan or Sufism, and obviously the limited scope of these lectures does not permit us to go into a critical research. Here we will try to give an outline of the currents and events that have occurred within this branch. For this purpose, it appears to be appropriate that we begin by providing a simple history of ‘irfan or Sufism from the beginnings of Islam until at least the 10th/16th century, before turning, so far as is practical in a venture such as this, to an analysis of the issues of ‘irfan.
What seems certain is that in the early era of Islam, that is throughout the 1st/7th century at least, there existed no group amongst the Muslims known as ‘urafa’ or Sufis. The name Sufi was first used in the 2nd/8th century.
The First Sufi
The first person to be called by the name Sufi is Abu Hashim al- Kufi. He lived in the 2nd/8th century and he it was who first built at Ramlah, in Palestine, a hospice for worship by a group of ascetically- minded Muslims.5 The date of Abu Hashim’s death is not known, but he was the teacher of Sufyan al-Thawri who died in 161/777.
Abu al-Qasim Qushayri, himself an eminent ‘arif and Sufi, states that the name Sufi had appeared before the year 200/815. Nicholson also states that the name appeared towards the end of the 2nd century H. From a tradition contained in kitab al-ma’ishah (vol. V) of al-Kafi, it appears that a group – Sufyan al-Thawri and a number of others – existed in the time of al-‘Imam al-Sadiq (A.S.) (that is to say, during the first half of the 2nd century H.) who were already called by this name.
If Abu Hashim al-Kufi was the first to be called Sufi, then, since he was the teacher of Sufyan al-Thawri who died in 161/777, this name was first used during the first half of the 2nd century H., not at its end (as Nicholson and others have stated). Nor does there appear to be any doubt that the reason for the name being Sufiyyah was their wearing of wool (Sufi: wool). Due to their asceticism, the Sufis abstained from wearing fine garments, and instead followed a practice of wearing clothes made of coarse wool.
As for the date this group first began to call themselves ‘urafa’, again there is no precise information. All that is certain, as confirmed by the remarks quoted of Sari Saqati (d. 243/867)6, is that the term was current in the third century H. However, in the book al-Luma’ of Abu Nasr al-Sarraj al-Tusi, one of the reliable texts of ‘irfan and Sufism, a phrase is quoted of Sufyan al-Thawri which gives the impression that this term appeared sometime in the second century. 7
At all events, there was no group known as Sufis during the first century H. This name appeared in the 2nd century H., and it seems that it was during the same century that the Sufis emerged as a particular group, not in the third century as is the belief of some people. 8 However, even though no special group existed in the first century by the name of ‘urafa’ or Sufis or any other name, it does not imply that the eminent Companions were merely pious and ascetic persons and that all of them led lives of simple faith devoid of spiritual depth. Perhaps it is true that some of the pious Companions knew nothing more beyond mere piety and worship, yet a group of them possessed a powerful spiritual life. Nor were they all of the same level. Even Salman and Abu Dharr were not of the same degree. Salman enjoyed a degree of faith that Abu Dharr could not have withstood. Many traditions have come to us telling us: If Abu Dharr knew what was in Salman’s heart, he would (considering him a heretic) have killed him. 9
Now we will list the different generations of the ‘urafa’ and Sufis from the 2nd/8th to the 10/16th century.
‘Urafa’ of the Second/Eighth Century
1. Al-Hasan al-Basri
The history of what is termed as ‘irfan, like kalam, begins with al-Hasan al-Basri (d. 110/728). He was born in 22/642 and lived for eighty-eight years, having spent nine-tenths of his life in the first century H. Of course, al-Hasan al-Basri was never known by the term Sufi, but there are three reasons for counting him amongst the Sufis. The first is that he compiled a book called Ri’ayah li huquq Allah (Observance of the Duties to Allah) 10, which can be recognized as the first book on Sufism. A unique manuscript of this book exists at Oxford. Nicholson has this to say on the subject: The first Muslim to give an experimental analysis of the inner life was Harith al-Muhasibi of Basrah … ‘The Path’ (tariqah), as described by later writers, consists of acquired virtues (maqamat) and mystical states (ahwal). The first stage is repentance or conversion; then comes a series of others, e.g. renunciation, poverty, patience, trust in God, each being a preparation for the next.11
Secondly, the ‘urafa’ themselves trace their orders back to al- Hasan al-Basri; and from him to ‘Ali (A.S.), such as the chain of the shaykhs of Abu Sa’id ibn Abi al-Khayr.12 Similarly, Ibn al-Nadim, in his famous al-Fihrist, traces the chain of Abu Muhammad Ja’far al-Khuldi back to al-Hasan al-Basri, stating that al-Hasan al-Basri had met seventy of the Companions who had fought at Badr.
Thirdly, some of the stories related of al-Hasan al-Basri give the impression that he was in fact part of a group that in later times became known as Sufis. We will relate some of these stories when appropriate later on.
2. Malik ibn Dinar
He was one of those who took asceticism and abstinence from pleasure to the extreme. Many stories are told about him in this regard. He died in the year 130/747.
3. Ibrahim ibn Adham
The famous story of Ibrahim ibn Adham resembles that of Buddha. It is said that he was the ruler of Balkh when something happened that caused him to repent and enter the ranks of the Sufis.
‘Urafa’ attach great importance to this man, and a very interesting tale is told about him in Rumi’s Mathnawi. He died around the year 161/777.
4. Rabi’ah al-‘Adawiyyah
This woman is one of the wonders of her time (d. 135/752 or 185/801). She was named Rabi’ah because she was the fourth daughter of her family (rabi’ah: fem. gender of fourth). She is not to be confused with Rabi’ah al-Shamiyyah, who was also a mystic and a contemporary of Jami and lived in the 9th/15th century.
Lofty sayings and soaring mystical verses are recorded of Rabi’ah al-‘Adawiyyah,’ and she is noted for amazing spiritual states (halat).
5. Abu Hashim al-Sufi of Kufah
The date of this man’s death is unknown. All that we can say is that he was the teacher of Sufyan al- Thawri; who died in 161/777. He appears to be the first person to have been called Sufi. Sufyan says about him: “If it were not for Abu Hashim I would not have known the precise details of ostentation (riya’).”
6. Shaqiq al-Balkhi
He was the pupil of Ibrahim ibn Adham. According to the author of Rayhanat al-‘adab, and others quoted in Kashf al-ghummah of ‘Ali ibn ‘Isa al-‘Arbili and Nur al-‘absar of al-Shablanji, he once met al-Imam Musa ibn Ja’far (A.S.) and has given an account of the Imam’s great station and miracles. Shaqiq died in 194/810.
7. Ma’ruf al-Karkhi
He is one of the famous ‘urafa’. It is said that his parents were Christian and that he became a Muslim at the hands of al- ‘Imam al-Rida (A.S.), learning much from him.
The lines of many orders, according to the claims of the ‘urafa’, go back to Ma’ruf, and through him to al-‘Imam al-Rida, and through al- ‘Imam al-Rida to the preceding Imams and thus to the Holy Prophet himself. This chain is therefore termed the ‘golden chain’ (silsilat al-dhahab). Those known as the Dhahabiyyun generally make this claim.
8. Al-Fudayl ibn ‘Iyad
Originally from Merv, he was an Iranian of Arab descent. It is said of him that at first he was a highwayman, and that as he was preparing to carry out a robbery one night he heard the voice of his potential victim, reciting the Quran. This had such an effect on him that he experienced a change of heart and repented. The book Misbah al-Shariah is attributed to him and it is said to consist of a series of lessons that he took from al-‘Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (A.S.). This book is considered reliable by an erudite scholar of traditions of the last century, the late Hajj Mirza Husayn Nuri, in the epilogue to his Mustadrak al-Wasa’il. Fudayl died in 187/803.
‘Urafa’ of the Third/Ninth Century:
1. Abu Yazid al-Bistami (Bayazid)
One of the great mystics, it is said Bayazid was the first to speak openly of ‘annihilation of the self in God’ (fana fi ‘Allah’) and ‘subsistence through God’ (baqa’ bi ‘Allah).
He has said “I came forth from Bayazid-ness as a snake from its skin.”
His ecstatic ejaculations (shathiyyat) have led others to call him a heretic. However, the ‘urafa’ themselves consider him one of those given to mystical ‘intoxication’ (sukr), that is, he uttered these words when he was beside himself in ecstasy.
Abu Yazid died in 261/874 or 264/877. Some have claimed that he worked as a water carrier in the house of al-‘Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (A.S.). However, this claim is not supported by history; Abu Yazid was not a contemporary of the Imam.
2. Bishr ibn al-Harith al-Hafi
One of the famous Sufis, he was another who led a corrupt life and then repented.
In his book Minhaj al-karamah, al-‘Allamah al-Hilli has related an account that depicts Bishr’s repentance as being at the hands of al-‘Imam Musa ibn Ja’far (A.S.), and because at the moment of his repentance he was barefoot in the street, he became known as ‘al- Hafi’ (hafi=barefooted). However, others have given a different reason for his being known as al-Hafi.
Bishr al-Hafi (born near Merv c. 150/767) died in 226/840 or 227/841 in Baghdad.
3. Sari al-Saqati
One of the friends and companions of Bishr al-Hafi, Sari al-Saqati was one of those who bore affection for the creatures of God and of those who preferred others above themselves.
In his book Wafayat al-‘a’yan, Ibn Khallikan writes that Sari once said, “It is thirty years that I have been seeking forgiveness for one phrase, Praise be Allah’s, that I allowed to pass my lips.” When asked to explain he replied, “One night the bazaar caught fire, and I left my house to see if the fire had reached my shop. When I heard that my shop was safe, I said, ‘Praise be Allah’s’. Instantly I was brought to my senses with the realization that, granted my shop was unharmed, should I not have been thinking about others’?” Sa’di is referring to this same story (with slight variations) where he says: One night someone’s chimney kindled a fire, and I heard that half of Baghdad had burnt down. One said, thank God that in the smoke and ashes, My shop has not been damaged. A man who had seen the world replied, O selfish man, Was your grief for yourself and no other? Would you be satisfied that a town should burn down by fire, If your own dwelling were left unscathed? Sari was the pupil and disciple (murid) of Ma’ruf al-Karkhi, and the teacher and maternal uncle of Junayd of Baghdad. Sari has many sayings on mystical unity (tawhid), love of God and other matters. It was also he who said: “Like the sun, the ‘arif shines on all the world; like the earth, he bears the good and evil of all; like water, he is the source of life for every heart; and like fire he gives his warmth to all and sundry.” Sari died in 253/867 at the age of ninety-eight.
4. Harith al-Muhasibi
He was one of the friends and companions of Junayd. He was called ‘al-muhasibi’ due to his great diligence in the matter of self-observation and self-reckoning (muhasabah). He was a contemporary of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, who, being an opponent of ‘ilm al-kalam, rejected Harith al-Muhasibi for entering into theological debates, and this led to the people avoiding him. Born in Basrah in 165/781, he died in 243/857.
5. Junayd of Baghdad
Originally from Nahaw and, the ‘urafa’ and Sufis have given Junayd the title Sayyid al-Ta’ifah, just as the Shi’ah jurisprudents call al-Shaykh al-Tusi Shaykh al-Ta’ifah. Junayd is counted as one of the moderate mystics. The kind of ecstatic ejaculations uttered by others were never heard from his lips. He did not even put on the usual dress of the Sufis, and dressed like scholars and jurisprudents. It was suggested to him that for the sake of his associates he should wear the Sufi dress. He replied: “If I thought clothes were of any importance I would make an outfit of molten iron, for the call of truth is that: There is no significance in the (Sufi) cloak, Importance lies only in the (inward) glow.
Junayd’s mother was the sister of Sari Saqati and Junayd became his pupil and disciple. He was also the pupil of Harith al-Muhasibi. It seems that he died in Baghdad in 298f910 at the age of ninety.
6. Dhu al-Nun al-Misri
An Egyptian, he was the pupil in jurisprudence of the famous jurisprudent Malik ibn Anas. Jami has called him the leader of the Sufis. He it was who first began to use symbolic language and to explain mystical matters through the use of a symbolic terminology which only the elect could understand.
Gradually this became the standard practice, and mystical concepts were expressed in the form of love-poetry (ghazal) and symbolic expressions. Some believe that Dhu al-Nun also introduced many Neo-Platonist ideas into ‘irfan and Sufism.13 Dhu al-Nun died in 246/860 in Cairo.
7. Sahl ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Tustari
He is one of the great ‘urafa’ and Sufis. A sect of gnostics who consider the main principle of spirituality to be combating the self is named ‘Sahliyyah’ after him. He associated with Dhu al-Nun of Egypt at Mecca. He died in Basrah in 282/895. 14
8. Husayn ibn Mansur al-Hallaj Now famous simply as al-Hallaj, he is one of the most controversial mystics of the Islamic world. The shathiyyat uttered by him are many, and he was accused of apostasy and claiming divinity. The jurisprudents pronounced him an apostate and he was crucified during the reign of the ‘Abbasid caliph al-Muqtadir. The ‘urafa’ themselves accuse him of disclosing spiritual secrets. Hafiz has this to say about him: He said, that friend, who was raised high on the cross, His crime was that he used to reveal secrets.
Some consider him no more than a juggler, but the ‘urafa’ themselves absolve him and say that the statements of al-Hallaj and Bayazid that gave the impression of unbelief were made when they were beside themselves in the state of ‘intoxication’.
Al-Hallaj is remembered by the ‘urafa’ as a martyr. He was executed in 309/913. 15
‘Urafa’ of the Fourth/Tenth Century:
1. Abu Bakr al-Shibli
A pupil and disciple of Junayd of Baghdad and one who had met al-Hallaj, al-Shibli is one of the famous mystics. He was originally from Khurasan. In the book Rawdat al-jannat, and in other biographies, many mystical poems and sayings have been recorded of him. Khawajah ‘Abd Allah al-‘Ansari has said: “The first person to speak in symbols was Dhu al-Nun of Egypt. Then came Junayd and he systematized this science, extended it, and wrote books on it. Al-Shibli, in his turn, took it to the pulpit.” Al-Shibli; died in 334/846 at the age of 87.
2. Abu ‘Ali al-Rudbari
He traced his descent to Nushirwan and the Sasanids, and was a disciple of Junayd. He studied jurisprudence under Abu al-‘Abbas ibn Shurayh, and literature under Tha’lab. Due to his versatile knowledge, he was called the ‘collector of the Law, the Way, and the Reality’ (jami’ al-Shari’ah wa al-Tariqah wa al-Haqiqah). He died in 322/934.
3. Abu Nasr al-Sarraj al-Tusi
Abu Nasr al-Sarraj is the author of the book al-Luma’, one of the principal, ancient and reliable texts of ‘irfan and Sufism. Many of the shaykhs of the Sufi orders were his direct or indirect pupils. He passed away in 378/988 in Tus.
4. Abu Fadl ibn al-Hasan al-Sarakhsi
He was the pupil and disciple of Abu Nasr al-Sarraj, and the teacher of Abu Sa’id ibn Abi al-Khayr. He was a mystic of great fame. He died in 400/1009.
5. Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Rudbari:
He was the son of Abu ‘Ali al-Rudbari’s sister. He is counted as one of the mystics of Damascus and Syria. He died in 369/979.
6. Abu Talib al-Makki
The fame of Abu Talib al-Makki rests largely on the book he authored on ‘irfan and Sufism, Qut al-qulub. This book is one of the principal and earliest texts of ‘irfan and Sufism. He passed away in 385/995 or 386/996.
‘Urafa’ of the Fifth/Eleventh Century:
1. Shaykh Abu al-Hasan al-Khurqani One of the most famous ‘urafa’, the ‘urafa’ relate amazing stories about him. Amongst these is one according to which he would go to the grave of Bayazid and converse with his spirit, taking his advice in solving his difficulties. Rumi says: After many years had passed since the death of Bayazid Bu’l-Hasan appeared. Now and then he would go and sit By the side of his grave in his presence, Until came the spirit of his shaykh, And as soon as he uttered his problem, it was solved Rumi has remembered Shaykh Abu al-Hasan a lot in his Mathnawi, which shows his devotion and attachment to him. It is said that he met with Abu ‘Ali Sina, the philosopher, and with Abu Sa’id ibn Abi al- Khayr, the famous ‘arif. He died in 425/1033-34.
2. Abu Sa’id ibn Abi al-Khayr One of the most famous of all mystics, Abu Sa’id ibn Abi al-Khayr is also one of those most noted for their spiritual states (halat). When once asked the definition of tasawwuf, he replied: “Tasawwuf is that you give up whatever is on your mind, give away whatever is in your hand, and to give over yourself to whatever you are capable of.” He met with Abu ‘Ali Sina. One day Abu ‘Ali participated in a meeting at which Abu Sa’id was preaching. Abu Sa’id was speaking about the necessity of deeds, and about obedience and disobedience to God. Abu ‘Ali recited these verses (ruba’i): We are those who have befriended your forgiveness, And seek riddance from obedience and disobedience.
Wherever your favor and grace is to be found, Let the not-done be like the done, the done like the not-done. Abu Sa’id immediately replied: O you who have done no good, and done much bad, And then aspire after your own salvation, Do not rely on forgiveness, for never Was the not-done like the done, the done like the not-done. The following ruba’i is also of Abu Sa’id: Tomorrow when the six directions fade away, Your worth will be the worth of your awareness.
Strive for virtue, for on the Day of Retribution, You shall rise in the form of your qualities.
Abu Sa’id passed away in the year 440/1048.
3. Abu ‘Ali al-Daqqaq al-Nishaburi
He is considered one of those who combined in himself the expertise of the Shari’ah and the Tariqah. He was a preacher and an exegete (mufassir) of the Quran. To such an extent did he use to weep while reciting supplications (munajat) that he was given the title ‘the lamenting shaykh’ (shaykh-e nawhahgar). He passed away in 405/1014 or 412/1021.
4. Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn ‘Uthman al-Hujwiri
He is the author of Kashf al-Mahjub, one of the famous Sufi books and one which has recently been published. He died in 470/1077.
5. Khwajah ‘Abd Allah al-‘Ansari
A descendant of the great Companion of the Prophet, Abu Ayyub al-‘Ansari, Khwajah ‘Abd Allah is himself one of the most famous and pious of all ‘urafa’. His fame rests largely on his elegant aphorisms, munajat, and ruba’iyyat. Amongst his sayings is this: When a child you are low, when a youth you are intoxicated, when old you are decrepit; so when will you worship God? He has also said: Returning evil for evil is the trait of a dog; returning good for good is the trait of a donkey; returning good for evil is the work of Khwajah ‘Abd Allah al-‘Ansari. The following ruba’i is also his: It is a great fault for a man to remain aloof, Setting oneself above all the creation.
Learn thy lesson from the pupil of the eye, That sees everyone but not itself.
Khwajah ‘Abd Allah was born in Herat where he died and was buried in 481/1088. For this reason he is known as ‘the Sage of Herat’ (Pir-e Herat).
Khwajah ‘Abd Allah authored many books, the best-known of which, Manazil al-sa’irin, is a didactic manual on sayr wa suluk. It is one of the well-written works of ‘irfan, and many commentaries have been written on it.
6. Imam Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali
One of the best-known scholars of Islam whose fame has penetrated the East and the West, he combined in his person the knowledge of the rational and traditional sciences (ma’qul wa manqul). He became head of the Nizamiyyah Academy in Baghdad and held the highest position of his age accessible to any scholar. However, feeling that neither his knowledge nor his position could satisfy his soul, he withdrew from public life and engaged in disciplining and purifying his soul.
He spent ten years in Palestine, far from all who knew him, and it was during this period that he became inclined towards ‘irfan and Sufism. He never again accepted any post or position. Following his period of solitary asceticism, he wrote his famous Ihya’ ‘ulum al-Din (‘Reviving the Sciences of Religion’). He died in his home city of Tus in the year 505/1111.
‘Urafa’ of the Sixth/Twelfth Century
1. ‘Ayn al-Qudat al-Hamadani
Of the most enthusiastic of mystics, ‘Ayn al-Qudat al-Hamadani was the disciple of Ahmad al-Ghazali’s, younger brother of Muhammad, who was also a mystic. The author of many books, he also composed some brilliant poetry that, however, was not altogether free of theopathetic exclamations (shathiyyat). Charges of heresy were brought against him; he was executed, and his body burnt and his ashes cast to the winds. He was killed around 525-533/ 1131-1139.
2. Sanai Ghaznawi
A famous poet, his verse is loaded with profound mystic sentiments. Rumi, in his Mathnawi, has cited some of his sayings and expounded them. He died around the middle of the 6th/12th century.
3. Ahmad Jami Known as “Zhand-e Pil”, Jami is one of the most celebrated of ‘urafa’ and Sufis. His tomb lies at Turbat-e Jam, near the border between Iran and Afghanistan, and is well-known. Following lines are among the verses he composed on fear (khawf) and hope (raja’): Be not haughty, for the mount of many a mighty man Has been hamstrung among rocks in the desert; But neither despair, for even wine-drinking libertines Have suddenly arrived at the destination by a single song. Similarly, on moderation between generosity and thrift he offers the following advice: Be not like an adze, drawing all to yourself, Nor like a plane, gaining nothing for your work; In matters of livelihood, learn from the saw, It draws some to itself, and lets some scatter.
Ahmad Jami died around the year 536/1141.
4. ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Gilani
He is one of the most controversial figures of the Islamic world. To him is attributed the Qadiriyyah order of Sufis.
His grave at Baghdad is well known and famous. He is amongst those from whom many supplications and high-flying sayings have been recorded. He was a sayyid descended from al-‘Imam al-Hasan (A.S.). He died in 560/1164 or 561/1165.
5. Shaykh Ruzbihan Baqli Shirazi
He is known as Shaykh-e Shattah on account of his prolific theopathetic exclamations. In recent years some of his books have been published, mainly through the efforts of the orientalists. He died in 606/1209.
‘Urafa’ of the Seventh/Thirteenth Century This century has produced some mystics of the highest stature. We will mention some of them in a chronological order:
1. Shaykh Najm al-Din Kubra
One of the greatest and most celebrated of mystics, the chains of many orders go back to him. He was the pupil and disciple of Shaykh Ruzbihan, and was also his son-in-law. He had many pupils and disciples, amongst whom was Baha’ al-Din Walad, the father of Jalal al-Din Rumi.
He lived in Khuwarizm (in the present day USSR) at the time of the Mongol invasions. Before his city was attacked, he was sent a message informing him that he could lead a party of his family and disciples out of the city to safety. Najm al-Din’s reply was that, ‘Throughout all the days of comfort I have lived alongside these people. Now that the day of difficulties has come I will not leave them.’ He then manfully strapped on a sword and fought alongside the people of the city until he was martyred. This happened in the year 624/1227.
2. Shaykh Farid al-Din al-‘Attar
One of the foremost of mystics, al- ‘Attar has works both in verse and in prose. His book Tadhkirat al- ‘awifya’ on the lives and characters of the Sufis and mystics – which begins with al-‘Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (A.S.) and ends with al-‘Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (A.S.) – is considered a source book of documentary significance, and great importance is attached to it by the orientalists.
Similarly, his work Mantiq al-tayr (‘The Speech of the Birds’) is a masterpiece of mystical literature. Rumi, commenting about al-‘Attar and Sana’i, says: ‘Attar was the spirit and Sana’i his two eyes, We are following in the steps of Sana’i and ‘Attar. Rumi has also said: ‘Attar passed through seven cities of love, While we are yet in the bend of a single lane. What Rumi means by the ‘seven cities of love’ are the seven valleys of which al-‘Attar speaks in his Mantiq al-tayr. Muhammad Shabistari in his Gulshan-e raz says: I am not ashamed of my poetry, For, the like of ‘Attar a hundred centuries will not see.
Al-‘Attar was the pupil and disciple of Shaykh Majd al-Din of Baghdad, who was amongst the pupils and disciples of Shaykh Najm al-Din Kubra. He also benefited from the company of Qutb al-Din Haydar, another of the shaykhs of the age and one after whom the town in which he is buried, Turbat-e Haydariyyah, was named.
Al-‘Attar lived during the time of the Mongol invasions, and died – some say at the hands of the Mongols – around 626-28/1228-1230.
3. Shaykh Shihab al-Din al-Suhrawardi
He is the author of the celebrated ‘Awarif al-ma’arif, an excellent text of ‘irfan and Sufism. He claimed descent from Abu Bakr. It is said that he went each year to visit Makkah and al-Madinah. He had met and conversed with ‘Abd al- Qadir al-Gilani. Amongst his disciples were the famous poets Shaykh Saidi and Kamal al-Din Isma’il al-‘Isfahani. Sa’di had this to say about him: My wise shaykh the murshid, Shihab, gave me two advices: One, not to be egocentric, The other, not to regard others with pessimism.
This Suhrawardi is not the same as the famous philosopher known as Shaykh al-‘Ishraq, who was killed around 581-590/1185-1194 in Aleppo, Syria. Suhrawardi the gnostic died around the year 632/1234.
4. Ibn al-Farid al-Misri
He is considered one of the mystics of the first rank. His mystical poetry, in Arabic, reaches the loftiest summits and is of the greatest elegance. His diwan (collection of poems) has been published several times and has been the subject of many distinguished commentaries. Of those who wrote a commentary on his work was ‘Abd al-Rahman Jami, a well-known mystic of the ninth century.
The poetry of Ibn al-Farid in Arabic is comparable to that of Hafiz in Persian. Muhyi al-Din ibn al-‘Arabi once suggested to him that he should write a commentary on his poems. Ibn al-Farid replied that the commentary of his poems was Ibn al-‘Arabi’s own al-Futuhat al- Makkiyyah.
Ibn al-Farid is of those who went through abnormal ‘states’ (ahwal). More often than not he was in an ecstatic state and it was in such states that many of his poems were composed. He died in the year 632/1234.
5. Muhyi al-Din ibn al-‘Arabi
One of the descendants of Hatim al-Ta’i, Muhyi al-Din ibn al-‘Arabi was originally from Spain. Most of his life, however, seems to have been spent in Makkah and Syria. He was a pupil of the sixth-century mystic Shaykh Abu Madyan al-Maghribi al-‘Andalusi. Through one intermediary link, the chain of his order goes back to the Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Gilani mentioned above.
Muhyi al-Din, also known by the name Ibn al-‘Arabi, is certainly the greatest mystic of Islam. No one else has been able to reach his level, neither before nor after him. Thus he is known by the sobriquet ‘al-Shaykh al-‘Akbar’ (the Greatest Shaykh).
Islamic mysticism, from the time of its first appearance, has made progress one century after another. Each century, as indicated above, produced great mystics who have developed ‘irfan, always adding to its heritage. This advancement had always been gradual. But in the 7th/13th century with the appearance of Ibn al-‘Arabi ‘irfan made a sudden leap and reached the summit of its perfection.
Ibn al-‘Arabi took ‘irfan to a stage it had never reached before.
The foundations for the second branch of ‘irfan, that is theoretical ‘irfan and its attendant philosophy, were laid by Ibn al-‘Arabi. In general, the mystics who came after him ate the crumbs from his table.
Besides bringing ‘irfan into a new phase, Ibn al-‘Arabi was one of the wonders of time. He was an amazing person, and this has led to wildly divergent views about him. Some consider him al-Wali al-Kamil (the Perfect Saint) and the Qutb al-‘Aqtab (the Pole of Poles). Others degrade him so much as to regard him a heretic, calling him Mumit al-Din (the Killer of the Faith) or Mahi al-Din (the Effacer of the Faith). Sadr al-Muta’allihin (Mulla Sadra), the great philosopher and Islamic genius, had the greatest respect for him, considering him far greater than Ibn Sina or al-Farabi.
Ibn al-‘Arabi authored over two hundred books. Many of his works, or perhaps all of those whose manuscripts are extant (numbering about thirty), have been published. Of his most important books, one is his al-Futahat al-Makkiyyah, a colossal work that is a veritable encyclopedia of ‘irfan. Another is his Fusus al-hikam which, although brief, is the most precise and most profound text of ‘irfan. Numerous commentaries have been written on it, yet perhaps there have been no more than two or three persons in any age who have been able to understand it.
Ibn al-‘Arabi passed away in 638/1240 in the city of Damascus, where his grave is still well known even today.
6. Sadr al-Din Qunawi
He was the pupil, disciple and son of the wife of Ibn al-‘Arabi. He was a contemporary of Khwajah Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and of Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi. He corresponded with Khwajah Nasir, who paid him great respect. Similarly, at Qunyah(in present day Turkey), there was perfect friendship and cordiality between him and Rumi. Qunawi used to lead the prayers and Rumi would pray behind him, and it has been said that Rumi was his pupil.
There is a story that when one day Rumi came to join Qunawi’s circle, he raised himself from his special masnad and offered it to Rumi. Declining, Rumi said that he would have no excuse before God for taking Qunawi’s seat. At which Qunawi threw away the masnad, saying, if it did not suit Rumi it would not suit him either.
Qunawi provided the best exposition on the thought and ideas of Ibn al-‘Arabi. In fact, without Qunawi it is possible that Ibn al-‘Arabi would never have been understood. It was also through Qunawi that Rumi became acquainted with Ibn al-‘Arabi and his school, and it seems that the reason for considering Rumi as having been Qunawi’s pupil is that Ibn al-‘Arabi’s ideas are reflected in Rumi’s Mathnawi and in his Diwan-e Shams.
Moreover, students of philosophy and ‘irfan have used Qunawi’s books as textbooks for the last six centuries. His three famous books are: Miftah al-ghayb, al-Nusus and al-FuQuk. Qunawi passed away in 672/1273 (the year in which both Rumi and Khwajah Nasir al-Din died) or in 673/1274.
7. Mawlana Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi
Known in the East as Mawlawi and in the West as Rumi, author of the world famous Mathnawi, this man is one of the greatest geniuses the world and Islamic ‘irfan have ever seen. He was descended from Abu Bakr. His Mathnawi is an ocean of wisdom and full of precise spiritual, social and mystic insights. He ranks amongst the foremost Persian poets.
Originally from Balkh, he left it with his father when still a child. Together they visited Makkah, and at Nishabur they met with Shaykh Farid al-Din al-‘Attar. On leaving Makkah his father went to Qunyah and there they settled down. At first Rumi, being a scholar, engaged himself, like the other scholars of his rank, in teaching, and he lived a respectable life. Then he met the famous mystic Shams-e Tabrizi. Rumi was magnetized by this man and at once gave everything up. His diwan of ghazal is named after Shams, and he has repeatedly made ardent mention of him in his Mathnawi. Rumi passed away in 672/1273.
8. Fakhr al-Din al-‘Iraqi al-Hamadani
A well-known poet of ghazal and a mystic, he was a pupil of Sadr al-Din Qunawi and a murid and protégé of Shihab al-Din al-Suhrawardi. He passed-away in 688/1289.
‘Urafa’ of the Eighth/Fourteenth Century
1. ‘Ala’ al-Dawlah Simnani He began as a secretarial official; then he gave up his post to enter the path of the ‘urafa’, giving up all his wealth in the way of God. He wrote many books, and held special beliefs in the field of theoretical ‘irfan, which are discussed in several important texts of ‘irfan. He passed away in 736/1335. Amongst his disciples was the well-known poet Khwajawi Kirmani, who describes him thus: Whoever flourishes upon the path of ‘Ali, Like Khidr, finds the springs of life.
Getting relief from the whisperings of the Devil, He becomes like ‘Ala ‘ al-Dawlah Simnani.
2. ‘Abd al-Razzaq Kashani
Of the scholars of the eighth century ‘irfan, ‘Abd al-Razzaq Kashani wrote commentaries on the Fusus of Ibn al- ‘Arabi and the Manazil al-sa’irin of Khwajah ‘Abd Allah. Both of these have been published and are referred to by scholars.
According to the author of Rawdat al-Jannat, in his account of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji, ‘Abd al-Razzaq Kashani was eulogized by al-Shahid al-Thani. He and ‘Ala’ al-Dawlah Simnani had heated discussions on theoretical issues of ‘irfan that had been raised by Ibn al- ‘Arabi. He passed away in the year 735/1334.
3. Khwajah Hafiz Shirazi Despite his world-wide fame, the details of Hafiz’s life are not altogether clear. What is known is that he was a scholar, an ‘arif, a hafiz of the Quran and an exegete of the Book. He himself has repeatedly indicated this in his verses: I haven’t seen more beautiful lines than yours, Hafiz, By the Quran that you have in your breast.
Your love shall cry out if you, like Hafiz, Recite the Quran memorizer with all the fourteen readings.
Of the memorizers of the world none like me has gathered, Subtleties of wisdom with Quranic delicacies.
In his poetry Hafiz speaks much of the Pir-e-Tariqat (spiritual guide) and of the murshid (master), yet it is not clear who was the teacher and guide of Hafiz himself. Hafiz’s poetry attains to lofty mystical heights, and there are few people who are able to perceive his mystic subtleties. All the ‘urafa’ who came after him admit that he had indeed practically covered the lofty stages of ‘irfan. Several important scholars have written commentaries on some of his verses. For example, a treatise was written by the well-known philosopher of the ninth century, Muhaqqiq Jalal al-Din Dawwani, on the following verse: My teacher said: the pen of creation was subject to no error, Bravo the pure eyes that hide all defects.
Hafiz passed away in 791/1389.16
4. Shaykh Mahmud Shabistari
He is the creator of the sublime mystic poem Gulshan-e raz (The Garden of Secrets). This poem is counted as one of the loftiest works of ‘irfan, and has immortalized the name of its author. Many commentaries have been written upon it, perhaps the best of which is that written by Shaykh Muhammad Lahiji, which has been published and is available. Shabistari passed away about the year 720/1320.
5. Sayyid Haydar Amuli
One of the erudite mystics, Sayyid Haydar Amuli is the author of the book Jami’ al-‘asrar (Collector of the Secrets), which is a precise work on the theoretical ‘irfan of Ibn al-‘Arabi. This book has lately been published. Another book by him is Nass al-nusus, which is a commentary on Ibn al-‘Arabi’s Fusus al-hikam.
He was a contemporary of the famous jurisprudent Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqin al-Hilli, but the date of his death is not known.
6. ‘Abd al-Karim Jilani
He is the author of the well-known book al-‘Insan al-kamil (‘The Perfect Man’). The concept of the perfect man is a subject first raised in its theoretical form by Ibn al-‘Arabi, and has ever since occupied an important place in Islamic ‘irfan. Ibn al-‘Arabi’s pupil and disciple, Sadr al-Din Qunawi, has discussed it fully in his Miftah al-ghayb and, as far as we know, at least two mystics have written whole books on the subject. One is ‘Aziz al-Din Nasafi, a mystic of the latter half of the 7th/13th century, the other being ‘Abd al-Karim Jilani. Jilani passed away in 805/1402 at the age of thirty- eight.
‘Urafa’ of the Ninth/Fifteenth Century
1. Shah Ni’mat Allah Wali
He claimed descent from the house of ‘Ali. He is amongst the most famous of ‘urafa’ and Sufis. The current Ni’mat- ullahi order is one of the most famous of Sufi orders. His grave near the city of Kirman is still a Sufi shrine.
It is said that he lived until the age of ninety-five, and died in the year 820/1417, 827/1424 or 834/1430. He lived most of his life in the seventh century and associated with Hafiz Shirazi. Much of his mystical poetry has survived.
2. Sa’in al-Din ‘Ali Tarakeh Isfahani
He is one of the most erudite of ‘urafa’. He was deeply acquainted with the theoretical ‘irfan of Ibn al-‘Arabi. His book Tamhid al-qawa’id, which has been published and is available, is a tribute to his profound learning in ‘irfan, and has been used as a source by the scholars who have succeeded him.
3. Muhammad ibn Mamzah al-Fanari al-Rumi
One of the scholars of the ‘Uthmani empire, he distinguished himself in several fields. Author of many books, his fame in ‘irfan is due to his book Misbah al-‘uns. This is a commentary on Qunawi’s Miftah al-ghayb. Although it is not every- one who can write a commentary and exposition on the books of Ibn al-‘Arabi and his disciple Sadr al-Din Qunawi, the authorities in ‘irfan to have followed him have all confirmed the value of this work. A lithograph print of this book with the hawashi of Aqa Mirza Hashim Rashti, a mystic of the last century, has been published from Tehran.
Unfortunately due to bad print parts of the hawashi are unreadable.
4. Shams al-Din Muhammad Lahiji Nurbakhshi
The author of a commentary on the Gulshan-e raz of Mahmud Shabistari, and a contemporary of Mir Sadr al-Din Dashtaki and ‘Allamah Dawwani, he lived in Shiraz. These two, who were both outstanding philosophers of their age and, according to what Qadi Nur Allah Shushtari has written in his Majalis al-mu’minin, both accorded Lahiji the greatest respect.
Lahiji was the disciple of Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh, himself the pupil of Ibn Fahd al-Hilli. In his commentary on the Gulshan-e raz he traces his chain back from Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh to Ma’ruf al-Karkhi, thence to al-‘Imam al-Rida and the preceding Imams and thus to the Holy Prophet himself (S.A.W.). This he calls the ‘Golden Chain’ (silsilat al-dhahab).
His fame rests largely on his commentary on the Gulshan-e raz, a commentary that itself is one of the loftiest of mystic texts. He began his writings, according to what he himself relates in the introduction to his commentary, in the year 877/1472. The year of his death is not precisely known. It seems to have been before 900/1494.
5. Nur al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman Jami
Jami claimed descent from the well- known jurisprudent of the second century, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani. A powerful poet, he is considered the last great mystic poet of the Persian language. At first he assumed the takhallus “Dashti”, but since he was born in the locality of Jam, in the vicinity of Mashhad, and traced his spiritual descent to Ahmad Jami (Zhand-e Pil), he changed this to Jami. In his own words: My birthplace is Jam and the drops of my pen Are the draught of the cup of Shaykh al-Islam,17
Thus in the pages of my poetry In two ways my pen-name is Jami.
Jami was an accomplished scholar in the various fields of Arabic grammar and syntax, law, jurisprudence, logic, philosophy and ‘irfan. His many books include a commentary on the Fusus al-hikam of Ibn al- ‘Arabi, a commentary on the Luma’at of Fakhr al-Din ‘Iraqi, a commentary on the Ta’iyyah of Ibn al-Farid, a commentary on the Qasidat al-Burdah in praise of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), a commentary on the Qasidah Mimiyyah of Farazdaq in praise of al-‘Imam ‘Ali ibn al- Husayn, a book entitled al-Lawdyih, his Bahdristan, written in the style of Sa’di’s Gulistans and a book Nafahat al-‘uns on the biographies of mystics.
Jami was the disciple of Baha’ al-Din Naqshaband, the founder of the Naqshabandi order. However, as in the instance of Muhammad Lahiji, who was a disciple of Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh, his academic standing is above that of his peer. Jami, even though he is counted as one of the followers of Baha’ al-Din Naqshaband, achieved an academic standing several degrees higher than that of Baha’ al-Din.
Thus in this brief history in which we are concentrating upon the academic side of ‘irfan and not upon the development of the various orders, special mention has been made of Muhammad Lahiji and ‘Abd al-Rahman Jami, rather than of the founders of their orders. Jami died in 898/1492 at the age of 81.
This ends our brief history of ‘irfan, covering the period from its beginnings until the close of the 9th/15th century. We chose to end at this point because, in our view, from the 10th/16th century onwards ‘irfan took on a different form. Up until this time the learned and academic figures of ‘irfan had all been members of regular Sufi orders and the poles (aqtab) or masters of the Sufi orders were great academic figures of ‘irfan, to whom we owe the great mystic works. Around the beginning of the 10th/16th century, however, this began to change.
Firstly, the masters of the Sufi orders were no longer possessed of the academic prominence of their forerunners. It may be said that from this time onwards formal Sufism lost itself in customs, outward aspects, occasionally of an innovative nature (bid’ah).
Secondly, scholars who were not members of any formal Sufi order began to show profound learning in the theoretical ‘irfan of Ibn al-‘Arabi, such that none from amongst the Sufi orders could match them. Examples of such scholars are Sadr al-Muta’allihin of Shiraz (d. 1050/1640), his pupil Fayd Kashani (d. 1091/1680), and Fayd’s own pupil Qadi Sa’id Qummi (d. 1103/1691). The knowledge of each of these of the theoretical ‘irfan of Ibn al-‘Arabi exceeded that of the poles or masters of any Sufi order of their times, while they themselves were not attached to any of the Sufi orders. Moreover, this is a development that has continued down to the present day, as can be seen in the examples of the late Aqa-Muhammad Rida Qumsheh’i and the late Aqa Mirza Hashim Rashti. These two scholars of the last hundred years were both experts in the field of theoretical ‘irfan, yet they too were not members of any Sufi order.
On the whole, it can be said that it was from the time of Muhyi al-Din ibn al-‘Arabi, who laid the foundations of theoretical ‘irfan and philosophized ‘irfan, that the seed of this new development was sown.
The above-mentioned Muhammad ibn Hamzah Fanari perhaps represented this type. But the new development that produced experts in the field of theoretical ‘irfan who were either not at all devoted to practical ‘irfan and its spiritual methodology, or, if they were – and to some extent most of them were – had nothing to do with any formal Sufi order, is perfectly discernible from the 10th/16th century onwards.
Thirdly, since the 10th/16th century there have been individuals and groups devoted to the spiritual methodology of practical ‘irfan, who had attained a very lofty spiritual standing indeed and yet they were not members of any of the formal Sufi orders. They were either indifferent to the formal Sufis or regarded them as being partially or totally heretical.
Amongst the characteristics of this new group of theoretical and practical ‘urafa’ – who were also learned in law and jurisprudence – was a perfect loyalty to the shari’ah and a harmony between the rites of the path of progression and the rites of jurisprudence. This development has also its own history, but here we have no opportunity to enter its details.