cientific facts that were/are discovered by modern science are numerous, however if we take the time to carefully read the Holy Quran we will find that most of these facts have already been mentioned in the Holy Quran. Nevertheless the purpose of this article, is not to prove that the Quran is right, for it needs no proof or confirmation of any kind. On the contrary, it aims at showing how these facts that were revealed to the unlettered Prophet (P) have only recently begun to be discovered by Modern Science, and that there are still a lot of undiscovered facts that are mentioned by the Holy Quran.
Isnâ€™t it strange that in this age of technology, science, space, rockets, and information, that all these things were mentioned by the Quran, which challenged all mankind to know about, and which some of them have not been discovered yet. This challenge can best be summarised by the following verse :
â€œOh Jinn and mankind, if you have power to penetrate the confines of the skies and earth then penetrate. But this you shall not do except with our authorityâ€.
(AL-RAHMAN, Chap 55:32).
From this verse we find out that the challenge is addressed to both Jinn and mankind, and that this challenge continues for all time to come. Allah (S) says, penetrate if you can, and in either of the two directions, which are â€œThe Earthâ€ and â€œThe Skiesâ€. Notice that â€˜skiesâ€™ was mentioned in the plural.
The plural form of the word skies is an accurate scientific impression, since it points out the existence, of many universes in the vast cosmos that is continuously expanding. This theory was only recently discovered by modern science. However the Holy Quran, 1400 years ago, described this universe to be constantly expanding. (Chap 51:47) â€œWe built the heavens with our might and we will expand themâ€. This is in total agreement with the recent discoveries of the infinite number of stars and galaxies. Earth, on the other hand, has been mentioned in the singular form, and this is a clear signal announcing the Earth is a unique structure with unique properties, climate and water etc, different from other planets.
As for the word â€œauthorityâ€ which was stated in the Holy Verses as a condition for penetration, it means that you cannot penetrate unless by a giant force or power, which could be equal to the force of the gravity of earth, or another force that only Allah alone knows about. Gravity, whether that of the earth or other planets is a great force, however only Allah the exalted knows its true power. Gravity keeps the Earth in a uniform distance from the sun and other planets. Any change in this force could allow the earth to move freely in the universe, which willquickly lead to its destruction. There might be another gigantic force that we cannot penetrate or reach. This force is the speed we should move at inorder to be able to penetrate through the skies. Modern science, Einsteinâ€™s Relativity Theory in particular, have shown that no matter what progress we make in the field of modern transportation, such as rockets, we would not be able to reach the speed needed to penetrate the universe, which happens to be the speed of light. Because of Einsteinâ€™s Theory, this is virtually impossible.
So far man has only been able to surpass the speed of sound, but not without having to face the obstacle of air resistance. The speed of sound is merely about 1194 km per hour, while the speed of light reaches 186,000 miles per second. The distance between the stars and galaxies are measured by light years. (A light year is the distance covered in one year at the speed of light, i.e. 186,000 miles x 60 seconds x 60 min x 24 hrs x 365 days). But even at this speed man will not reach the nearest stars except after millions of years. More over, modern science believes that there are other solar systems and other planets that might be the home to other creations. This thoery is already stated in one Holy Verse of the Quran.
â€œIt is Allah who has created seven heavens, and earthâ€™s as many. His commandment descends through them, so that you may know that Allah has power over all things and he has knowledge of all thingsâ€. (Chap 65:12)
It is interesting that seven of the nine planets discovered in our galaxy, the other two being Saturn and Jupiter, are similar to earth in their structure. If a man were to travel at the speed of light he would be able to penetrate our solar group, and other planets in one hour only. He would leave our galaxy or the Milky Way in 90,000 years. But it would take him a million light years to reach the nearest galaxy. As for the other far galaxies whose number is not known by anybody except Allah the most wise, it would take 400 million years or more to reach. Modern science with the aid of the most sophisticated telescopes has been able to count more than one thousand million galaxies up till now. Our galaxy alone has one hundred thousand million stars, the sun is but one of them. Allah said in his Holy Book:
â€œIf we opened for the unbelievers a gate in the sky, and they kept ascending through it, still they would say: â€œOur eyes were dazzled, Truly, we must have been bewitched people. (Chap 15:14)
Yes, the scientists have so far been only aloud to see through there telescopes, yet they have become bewitched by wonders of the universe, the more their scientific capabilities are improved, and the more they learn about the cosmos, the more convinced that they are unable to discover its secrets. Einstein himself declared in April 1942 that he does not wish to deny the causality of creating this universe. Thus this verse of the Quran expresses the feelings and attitude of all scientists in this age. We have established that it is impossible to penetrate the skies. What about the second part of the challenge. Can we penetrate into the core of the earth ?
No it is absolutely impossible for man whatever the rate of mastering technology, or the advancement of science, to penetrate. Because the more we go inside the earth the higher the temperature, until it becomes like hell in its core.
The earth has a hard cover that shields its surface at a thickness of about 40 kms at its highest and 5 kms only in its lowest. In relation with its diameter this cover is just like the outer cover of an onion or the shell of an egg. Beneath this cover is another layer called Mantile, which resembles the white part of the egg. The Mantile is divided into two layers :
1. An outer layer of a thickness of 2900 kms that is composed of high density melting
rocks at a temperature that ranges between 800-1200 oc, and this layer is the source of all the melting rocks that flow whenvolcanoes errupt.
2. An inner layer composed of high density melting rocks at a temperature that reaches 2500 oc. The core of the earth resembles the yellow part of the egg. It is composed of melting iron, at a temperature that reaches 3000 oc.
Then how could man, no matter how strong and well equipped he may be, penetrate the earth from one side to the other ? How could he possibly endure a temperature of 3000 oc.
If this is the case on land, could man penetrate into the depth of the seas; whose waters could cover all the surfaces of the earth (if it was levelled) at a height of about 8kms ? this is one of the reasons that Allah (s) created highlands and mountains to hold the earth together. He (s) says;
â€œâ€¦â€¦ immovable mountains on the earth lest it should shakeâ€ (Quran, 31:10)
â€œHe who has established (the earth and waters) it with running rivers; who has set mountains upon it and placed a barrier between two seas.â€ (Quran, 27:61)
These are the mountains that held the earth and prevented the seas from covering the earth like a barrier so that it would not entirely cover the earth. This enabled us to live on the earth and benefit from its fruits. Didnâ€™t He (s) say :
â€œAnd the earth He extended after that, and then drew from it water and pastured. And the mountains He fixed a provision for you and your cattleâ€ (Quran 79:32-34)
The seas also have their own mountains and valleys. And while their mountains are higher than those on land, the valleys are also deeper. The Marina Trench for example is 35000 feet deep. Could man reach such a depth. No, he could not, no matter how much progress in the field of science and technology he may make. Man has not been able to explore the depths of the sea except in a very limited way, because there are many difficulties he would have to overcome.
The most important of which being the increase in the atmospheric pressure that increases at the rate of one degree for every 10 metres. Therefore how could anyone endure the pressure inside the depth of Marina Trench where the atmospheric pressure is 1000 times that of the ordinary. There is another problem. i.e. the complete darkness that one would encounter at a depth of 110 metres only. As well as the problems of providing adequate oxygen supply and appropriate head helmets and the like.
Finally, we would like to stress once more that the challenge remains valid and it will go on to exist until judgement day. It is the challenge of Allah (s), be praised to all His creations, and remember,
â€œJinn and mankind, if you have to penetrate the confines of the skies and earth, then penetrate. But this you shall not do except with our authorityâ€
By: Dr Abdul-Wahab Al-Hakim