Date :Thursday, December 13th, 2018 | Time : 13:48 |ID: 80550 | Print

The Month of Ramadan: Commentary of the Quran (Chapter 2:185, Part-I) By: Mohammad Sobhanie

Commentary of the Quran (Chapter 2:185, Part-I)

By: Mohammad Sobhanie

The Month of Ramadan

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّـهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿١٨٥

Translation:

2:185 The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs of guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So, whoever of you witness the month (of Ramadan), he must observe Fasting in it, and whoever is ill or on a journey shall fast a similar number of days later on.

Allah intends for you ease, and does not intend for you hardship. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance you shall be grateful.

Commentary:  The month of Ramadan [(شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ)] is the month during which the Quran was revealed [(الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ)] to provide guidance to people [(هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ)]. This book guides people by presenting clear proofs and evidence of divine guidance [(وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ)] and the criterion [(وَالْفُرْقَانِ)] of right and wrong. Whoever witness the month of Ramadan must observe fasting throughout [(فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ)]. Whoever is sick or travelling is exempt from fasting. Nevertheless, he should make up for the missed days of fasting later instead [(وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ)].

The reason for this exception is that Allah intends to lighten the burden of fasting while one is either sick or travelling. In particular, the verses states: Allah intends for you ease, and does not want to make things difficult for you [(يُرِيدُ اللَّـهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ)]. However, He wants you [(يُرِيدُ اللَّـهُ بِكُمُ)] to fast the prescribed days in the month of Ramadan [(وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ)]. Those who legitimately miss fasting should fast later for the equal number of days that they missed fasting:

…. يُرِيدُ اللَّـهُ …. وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ …. ﴿١٨٥

The word [(شَهِدَ)] means to witness. “Witnessing the month of Ramadan” means knowledge of the month’s arrival. Some commentators hold the opinion that witnessing the month means witnessing sighting of the new moon, but there is no evidence to support the latter interpretation [Al-Mizan, Vol.2 Page 31 & TafseereNamoona, Vol. 1, P.627].

One could infer from verses 183-185 that there is a connection between the revelation of the Quran and the declaration of fasting during the month of Ramadan:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ ﴿١٨٣﴾ ….شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ ….. ﴿١٨٥

2:183 O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may become righteous.

2:184 The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs of the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong)…

The connecting link is the piety and righteousness which is the object of fasting [(لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ)]. With fasting we earn piety and righteousness, and piety and righteousness enable mankind to benefit from the divine teachings of the Quran.

The verse at the end asks believers that Allah (SWT) wants them to glorify Him for His divine guidance and perchance they shall be grateful.

….. يُرِيدُ اللَّـهُ ….. وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿١٨٥

2:185 …(He wants you) to to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.

 

Word by Word Translation:

[شَهْرُ] Month of [رَمَضَانَ] Ramadhan [الَّذِي] is that [أُنزِلَ] was revealed [فِيهِ] there in [الْقُرْآنُ] the Quran [هُدًى] a guidance [لِّلنَّاسِ] for mankind [وَبَيِّنَاتٍ] and clear proofs [مِّنَ] of [الْهُدَىٰ] the guidance [وَالْفُرْقَانِ] and the criterion [فَمَن] so whoever [شَهِدَ] witness [مِنكُمُ] among you [الشَّهْرَ] the month [فَلْيَصُمْهُ] them he should fast in it. [وَمَن] and whoever [كَانَ] is [مَرِيضًا] sick [أَوْ] or [عَلَىٰ] on [سَفَرٍ] a journey [فَعِدَّةٌ] then prescribed number (should be made up) [مِّنْ] from [أَيَّامٍ] days [أُخَرَ] other. [يُرِيدُ] Intends [اللَّـهُ] Allah [بِكُمُ] for you [الْيُسْرَ] the ease [وَلَا] and not [يُرِيدُ] intends [بِكُمُ] for you [الْعُسْرَ] the hardship. [وَلِتُكْمِلُوا] And so that you complete [الْعِدَّةَ] the prescribed period [وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا] and so that you glorify [اللَّـهَ] Allah [عَلَىٰ] for [مَا] what [هَدَاكُمْ] He guided you [وَلَعَلَّكُمْ] so that you may [تَشْكُرُونَ] be grateful.

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