Shafaqna (International Shia News Agency
Commentary of the Quran (Chapter 2:23, Part-3)
By: Mohammad Sobhanie
The Prophecies of the Quran
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا شُهَدَاءَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿٢٣﴾ فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ ۖ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٢٤﴾
Translation: Should you have any doubt about what We have revealed to Our servant, present one chapter comparable to it, and call on all your supporters besides God, if your claim is true.
If you do not produce such a chapter, as you never will, then guard yourselves against the fire whose fuel will be people and stones, and is prepared for those who hide the Truth.
The accurate foretelling of future events, or giving prophecy, provides legitimacy to an individual claiming to be a prophet with divine knowledge. Among several prophecies presented in the Quran, the fulfillment of the prophesized conquest of Mecca proved Prophet Mohammad’s (PBUH) status as God’s messenger.
Conquest of Mecca:
Six years following Prophet Mohammad’s migration to Medina, the city of Mecca still remained under control of tribal leaders opposing the message of Islam.
While asleep the Prophet had a vision that he entered the sacred Mosque and performed the ritual of pilgrimage to Kabah with his companions. Elated by this experience, he enthusiastically shared his vision with the Muslims of Medina and asked them to join him for pilgrimage to Mecca. Having been barred from Mecca for the previous six years, these early Muslims were eager to return to the Kabah peacefully for the sole purpose of worship.
The Prophet and 1400 of his companions donned themselves with the clothing of Ihram and set forth from Medina to Mecca. Among their possessions were livestock intended for sacrifice and light arms intended for personal protection. During this journey the Prophet and his followers set camp at “Hudibyah”, located two miles distance from Mecca. The ruler’s of Mecca, aware of the prophet’s arrival, intended to block any entrance to the city and sent a party to negotiate with the prophet in advance of a potential war. These negotiations resulted in the signing of the peace treaty of Hudibyah.
In this treaty both parties agreed to the cessation of hostility and of undermining the security and stability of one another for the next 10 years. It was also agreed upon that the Prophet would return to Medina and postpone his pilgrimage to the following year. After agreeing upon these conditions, the Prophet asked his companions to sacrifice their animals, shave their heads, and remove their garments of pilgrimage prior to returning to Medina.
This treaty was met by great disappointment amongst the Prophet’s followers, and some even began to doubt him. As the Prophet and his followers departed, the Angel Gabriel revealed the following verses:
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا ﴿١﴾
“Surely We have given you a clear victory.” [al-Fath 48:1]
Two years later, during the 8th of Hijri, the Muslims were defeated by the Eastern Roman Army. Viewing this loss as a sign of weakness, the clan of Banu Bakr, an alliance of rulers from Mecca, attacked an ally of the Prophet. This was a breach of one term of the treaty of Hudibyah, in which “an attack on an ally of the party will be considered an attack on the party itself”.
In response, the Prophet offered three alternatives to the rulers of Mecca for their transgression:
- Dissolve their alliance with the Banu Bakr
- Compensate by paying money
- Dissolve the treaty
The rulers of Mecca chose the third of these options, to dissolve the treaty of Hudibyah. Consequently, the Prophet marched with an army towards the city of Mecca and successfully conquered it without any bloodshed. This clear victory served as fulfillment of the Quran’s prophecy.
Upon losing the city to Muslims, all the disbelievers of Mecca gathered in the sacred Mosque in fear of revenge. They knew of their own atrocities against the Prophet. They had persecuted the Prophet for thirteen years while he was in Mecca, attempted to assassinate him upon his bed, and raged many wars against him and his followers while he was in Medina. In these wars the Prophet lost his best companions and many of his close family members including his uncle, Hamzah.
The Prophet entered the sacred Mosque and said, “What do you expect my judgment would be about you?”
They replied, “we have not seen anything except goodness, and we do not expect anything from you except kindness. You are our noble brother and the son of our gracious brother. And the power is in your hand.”
The Prophet replied, “I say what my brother Yusuf said about his brothers, that there shall be no blame against you on this day; Allah may forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy1! “
The Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) forgave his enemies without taking any retribution. Indeed, He was a mercy to mankind.2
- The Quran (12:92)