SHAFAQNA -Â The Almighty Allah in Surat Ar-Raâ€™d Ayah 16 states:Â Ùˆ Ø§Ù„Ù„Ù‡ Ø®Ø§Ù„Ù‚ Ú©Ù„ Ø´ÛŒØ¡, which means thatÂ He is the Creator of everything. Also, God says:Â Ø§Ù„Ø°ÛŒ Ø§ØØ³Ù† Ú©Ù„ Ø´ÛŒØ¡ Ø®Ù„Ù‚Ù‡Â (Sajda, Ayah 7):Â He who made everything He has created good. The conclusion is that all that exists is good. Thus, if we say something is evil, it is the lack of a good. For instance, ailment is the lack of health, etc.
The term â€˜evilâ€™ in the Quran and the Ahadith is usually used to refer to wrong belief or practice. So, they are not meant in their philosophical sense as Shahid Motahari refers to.
Consider the following examples:
1.Â Ùˆ Ù…Ù† Ø´Ø± Ù…Ø§ Ø®Ù„Ù‚Â : which means I seek refuge with AllahÂ from the evil acts of His creatures, such as gossiping, murdering etc, that are the evil acts of humans.
2. The Prophet (P) said: Ø§Ù†Ù…Ø§ Ø§Ù„Ø®ÛŒØ± Ù…Ø§ Ø§Ø±ÛŒØ¯ Ø¨Ù‡ ÙˆØ¬Ù‡ Ø§Ù„Ù„Ù‡ Ùˆ Ø¹ÙÙ…Ù„ Ø¹Ù„ÛŒ Ù…Ø§ Ø§Ù…Ø±Ù‡ Ø§Ù„Ù„Ù‡ØŒ Ùˆ Ø§Ù…Ø§ Ù…Ø§ Ø§Ø±ÛŒØ¯ Ø¨Ù‡ Ø§Ù„Ø±ÛŒØ§Ø¡ Ùˆ Ø§Ù„Ø³Ù…Ø¹Û€ Ù‡Ùˆ Ø§Ù„Ø´Ø± Ø§Ù„Ø®Ø§Ù„Øµ. ) Ø§Ù„Ø§ØØªØ¬Ø§Ø 1:45):â€Good is that by which Godâ€™s pleasure is sought, and which is done according to the commands of God. As for that which is done to show off or gain reputation, this is pure evilâ€ (Al-Ihtijaj, 1:45).
3. In the famous Hadith of the host of intellect and ignorance, Kofr, oppression, and sins are referred to as evil such as:Ø§Ø³Ø±Ø¹ Ø§Ù„Ø´Ø± Ø¹Ù‚ÙˆØ¨Û€ Ø§Ù„Ø¨ØºÛŒ, â€œThe evil which is punished most quickly is oppressionâ€.
Evil is also used in the Quran and Ahadith to refer to what we assume is evil. That is similar to what philosophers say that evil is a relative concept, not an absolute one. For example, the biting of a snake is good and a defence mechanism for itself, but for the one who is bitten, it is regarded as evil. Or we regard something evil due to its immediate discomfort, although on the long run, it provides us a lot of comfort and hence will be good. The same applies to so-called good.
The Almighty Allah states:
Ùˆ Ø¹Ø³ÛŒ Ø£Ù† ØªÚ©Ø±Ù‡ÙˆØ§ Ø´ÛŒØ¦Ø§ Ùˆ Ù‡Ùˆ Ø®ÛŒØ± Ù„Ú©Ù… ÙˆØ¹Ø³ÛŒ Ø§Ù† ØªØØ¨ÙˆØ§ Ø´ÛŒØ¦Ø§ Ùˆ Ù‡Ùˆ Ø´Ø± Ù„Ú©Ù… Ùˆ Ø§Ù„Ù„Ù‡ ÛŒØ¹Ù„Ù… Ùˆ Ø§Ù†ØªÙ… Ù„Ø§ØªØ¹Ù„Ù…ÙˆÙ†, â€œâ€¦and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not knowâ€(Surat al-Baqarah, 216).Also Imam Ali (a.s.) in his final will to his son says: Ùˆ Ù…Ø§ Ø®ÛŒÛŒØ± Ø¨Ø®ÛŒØ± Ø¨Ø¹Ø¯Ù‡ Ø§Ù„Ù†Ø§Ø± Ùˆ Ù…Ø§ Ø´Ø± Ø¨Ø´Ø± Ø¨Ø¹Ø¯Ù‡ Ø§Ù„Ø¬Ù†Û€. â€œThere is no good in a â€˜goodâ€™ thing whose consequence is Hell, and there is no evil in an â€˜evilâ€™ whose consequence is Heavenâ€.
Answered by: Sheikh Mansour Leghaei